Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/6/2012
Publication Date: 1/23/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/62104
Citation: Hughes, S.R., Gibbons, W.R., Moser, B.R., Rich, J.O. 2013. Sustainable multipurpose biorefineries for third-generation biofuels and value-added co-products. In: Fang, Z., editor. Biofuels - Economy, Environment and Sustainability. Croatia: InTech. p. 245-267.
Technical Abstract: Modern biorefinery facilities conduct many types of processes, including those producing advanced biofuels, commodity chemicals, biodiesel, and value-added co-products such as sweeteners and bioinsecticides, with many more co-products, chemicals and biofuels on the horizon. Most of these processes are being developed individually, but have the potential to be more efficient and economical when combined in multiprocess crossover regimens using by-products or waste materials from one process to produce advanced animal feeds, human nutritional supplements, high-value peptides, or enzymes needed in other processes. For example, advanced biorefineries that hydrotreat plants oils and animal fats into renewable fuels could be combined with cellulosic ethanol production from high temperature anaerobic fermentation by yeast. Concomitant production of high-value bio-based products as well as advanced animal feeds would be accomplished from by-products at such an integrated facility. Cellulosic n-butanol could be produced from strains of Clostridium strains developed to be tolerant of high concentrations of butanol. Furthermore, engineered algae could be used for for fertilizer, and for production of sucrose and algal oils. The continuous automated multipurpose biorefinery would require construction of support areas, including research and pilot facilities, a strain collection building, and distillation and post fermentation processing facilities. Unusable waste streams would be utilized as pyrolysis feedstocks to power the biorefinery. For distribution of biorefinery products, an advanced fuel mixing station, a storage facility, and a distribution facility are also necessary. A high-volume animal feed station could be established for distribution to local farms.