Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/29/2012
Publication Date: 11/1/2012
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/56588
Citation: Lin, L., Martinez, C.V., Redondo, M., Juneja, V.K., Burson, D.E., Harshavardhan, T. 2012. Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by lemon juice and vinegar product in reduced NaCl roast beef. Journal of Food Science. 77(11)598-603. Interpretive Summary: One of the most common types of foodborne illness in the United States is caused by an opportunistic bacterium, Clostridium perfringens. Illnesses have been most commonly linked with inadequate cooling practices in retail food service establishments. Thus, there was a need to determine safe cooling time and temperature for cooked beef products and provide data for risk assessment. We determined that buffered lemon juice and vinegar can be incorporated into meat product formulations to reduce the risk of C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during abusive cooling. These findings will be of immediate use to the food industry and regulatory agencies to ensure the safety of the cooked foods.
Technical Abstract: Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in reduced sodium roast beef by a blend of buffered lemon juice concentrate and vinegar (MoStatin LV) during abusive exponential cooling was evaluated. Roast beef containing salt (NaCl; 1, 1.5, or 2%, wt/wt), blend of sodium pyro- and poly-phosphates (0.3%), and MoStatin LV (0, 2, or 2.5%) was inoculated with a three-strain C. perfringens spore cocktail to achieve final spore population of 2.5 to 3.0 log CFU/g. The inoculated products were heat treated and chilled exponentially from 54.4 to 4.4C within 6.5, 9, 12, 15, 18 or 21 h. Cooling of roast beef (2.0% NaCl) within 6.5 and 9 h resulted in less than 1.0 log CFU/g increase in C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth, whereas reducing the salt concentration to 1.5 and 1.0% resulted in more than 1.0 log CFU/g increase for cooling times longer than 9 h (1.1 and 2.2 log CFU/g, respectively). Incorporation of MoStatin LV into the roast beef formulation minimized the C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth to less than 1.0 log CFU/g, regardless of the salt concentration and the cooling time.