|Zhu, Lieceng - Fayetteville State University|
|Liu, Xiang - North Carolina State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/16/2011
Publication Date: 10/1/2011
Citation: Zhu, L., Chen, M., Liu, X. 2011. Early stage phytohormone and fatty acid profiles of plants associated with host and non-host resistance to hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation. Journal of Economic Entomology. 104(4): 1384-1392.
Interpretive Summary: Hessian fly is an important insect pest of wheat that causes damage to seedlings as well as lodging of adult plants. The purpose of this study was to compare the induction of plant hormones and fatty acids in resistant wheat cultivar 'Molly' and a nonhost rice cultivar called 'Nipponbare'. In general, chemical changes were more rapid in the wheat plants than the rice plants. Salicylic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid were increased in both wheat and rice and may be important components of the defense response. This report provides a foundation for future work on the role of phytohormones and fatty acids in the defense response against Hessian fly.
Technical Abstract: Phytohormones and fatty acids play important roles in plant resistance to insects and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the similarities and differences in the accumulations of phytohormones and fatty acids in the resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ‘Molly’ and the non-host rice (Oryza sativa L.) ‘Niponbare’ in responses to Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor, Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larval attacks. Using chemical ionization-gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, we analyzed the concentrations of 13 phytohomones and fatty acids at the attack site of wheat and rice plants at 1, 6, 24 or 48 hour(s) post the initial attack (hpia). Hessian fly attack resulted in increases of salicylic acid (SA), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), palmitic acid (FA16:0), but a decrease of abscisic acid (ABA) in both wheat and rice plants. Additionally, the accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) increased whereas the accumulation of cinnamic acid (CA) decreased in wheat plants, but no changes were observed in the accumulation of JA, and the accumulation of CA increased in rice plants following Hessian fly attack. On the other hand, the accumulations of benzoic acid (BA), strearic acid (FA18:0), and oleic acid (FA18:1) increased in rice plants, but no changes were observed in wheat plants following Hessian fly attack. Hessian fly-induced changes were more rapid in wheat plants in comparison with those in rice plants. Our study suggests that SA and OPDA may be involved in resistance of wheat and rice plants to Hessian fly, and that the R gene-mediated resistance responses are more rapid than non-host resistance responses.