Submitted to: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/21/2011
Publication Date: 4/25/2011
Citation: Onwulata, C.I., Tunick, M.H., Qi, P.X. 2011. Extrusion texturized dairy proteins: processing and application. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 62:173-200.
Technical Abstract: The primary proteins in milk, casein and the whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, have a number of health benefits and desirable functional properties. In a twin-screw extruder, mechanical shear forces, heat, and pressure cause considerable changes in the molecular structures of the dairy proteins, a process known as texturization. These changes further impart unique functional properties to dairy proteins, resulting in new protein-based food ingredients. The new functional behavior depends on the extent of texturization and the degree of structural change imparted, and is controlled by adjusting parameters such as extrusion temperature and moisture level. Such texturized proteins can be used to produce puffed high-protein snacks. Softer gels and expanded structures can be made using supercritical fluid extrusion and cold extrusion, techniques that avoid elevated temperatures, minimizing possible damage to the nutritive components and functionality of the texturized dairy proteins. The uses of the texturized dairy ingredient in food products with improved functionality and enhanced nutritive profiles are presented.