Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/20/2004
Publication Date: 9/19/2004
Citation: Singh, H., Park, S., Bean, S. 2004. Optimization of lab-scale production of sorghum waffles. Abstract No. 387 in: 2004 AACC Annual Meeting Program Book. p.160. Meeting Abstract. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: It is estimated that there are 1-2 million people in the U.S. with celiac disease, caused by intolerance to wheat gluten. There is a demand for wheat-free food products for this population. The objective of this project was to optimize the laboratory production of non-wheat waffles, using food-grade sorghum flour as the primary ingredient. Such optimization is necessary, because sorghum flour does not possess the viscoelastic properties which are unique to wheat. For this reason, egg-protein foam was used to provide the necessary structure to the waffles. The base formula consisted of sorghum flour, non-fat dry milk (NFDM), powdered egg whites, sugar, salt, and baking soda. Powdered eggs were first whipped into foam and then mixed with the sorghum flour batter. Systematic variation in ingredients showed that NFDM was essential for browning of the waffles, while baking soda, egg whites and sugar were required for generation and retention of air in the waffles. Therefore, all supplementary ingredients were important to obtain the final structure and texture. A batter consistency of 13 -14 units, and cooking temperature of 170±10 degrees Celsius, were found to be optimum. Waffle quality was measured using texture analysis, weight and height, and by visually assessing waffle color and internal structure. Sorghum waffles, produced under these conditions, were similar in appearance and structure to wheat waffles.