|Tilley, Michael - Mike|
Submitted to: Wheat Newsletter
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/18/2002
Publication Date: 7/1/2002
Citation: Chung, O.K., Dowell, F.E., Bean, S., Lookhart, G.L., Ohm, J.B., Tilley, M., Seitz, L.M., Ram, M.S., Bechtel, D.B., Casada, M. 2002. Wheat research in the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory. Wheat Newsletter. Pages 224-234. Interpretive Summary: Abstracts for the Wheat Newsletter.
Technical Abstract: This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 48. It mainly summarizes activities on wheat research during 2001 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes 26 technical abstracts of research accomplishments and news items from two research units, including the Engineering Research Unit (ERU) and the Grain Quality and Structure Research Unit (GQSRU). The GQSRU reported research projects on wheat starch, protein and lipid contents and compositions in relation to intrinsic end-use quality. Based on amyloplast formation and starch granule development in hard red winter wheat, there are three sizes of starch granules produced during endopserm development. Starch size distributions for wheats of different classes were determined using digital image analysis. Wheat proteins were separated using an optimized HPCE method and the factors influencing the characterization of gluten proteins were investigated by size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). We collaborated with the Agronomy Department, Kansas State University, to improve drought tolerance by incorporating a barley HVA1 gene to wheat. The genes encoding high molecular weight glutenin subunits were isolated by screening a Triticum tauschii cDNA library and tyrosine crosslinks were analyzed for wheat and other grains. We have reported the effects of breadmaking on wheat DNA if the GM materials in processed foods can be detected. Hard winter wheats were reviewed for production, utilization, and quality testing. Quality characteristics of hard winter and spring wheats grown under an over-wintering condition were investigated. Quality prediction equations were developed using single kernel and mixograph parameters. Relationships of flour particle sizes, or free lipids on bread quality parameters were studied. GQSRU and ERU personnel studied several factors to differentiate wheat colors (red vs. white) and expanded into vibrational spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, IR-microscopy). The ERU reported rapid sorting, single kernel and/or NIR technology: to detect and sorting to remove bunted kernels and to purify white wheat stock; to use sorting systems based on optical methods for detecting and removing seeds infested internally by insects or fungi; to determine vitreous subclasses of hard red spring wheat using NIR; and assess heat-damaged wheat kernels also using NIR. Moisture adsorption was characterized for wheat and barley and found that the adsorption rates were lower for barley than for wheat, due to lower diffusion coefficients for the barley endosperm and germ as compared to wheat. Two new scientists of the GQSRU (Scott Bean) and the ERU (Tom Pearson) were announced. The article ends with news of the Grain Marketing and Production Research Center and a list of 39 publications.