Location: Sugarbeet and Potato Research
Project Number: 3060-21650-001-024-S
Project Type: Non-Assistance Cooperative Agreement
Start Date: Sep 1, 2020
End Date: Feb 28, 2023
The objectives of the proposed project are to (1) germinate chickpea, lentil, and dry pea in pilot scale; (2) evaluate the functionalities of pulse protein isolates after germination; (3) develop texturized meat analogues with germinated pulse protein isolates; (4) evaluate the quality of meat analogues based on sensory, texture, and digestibility; and (5) scale up meat analogue process in pilot scale.
Chickpea, lentil, and yellow pea will be germinated in a greenhouse at 25 °C with intermittent mist spray. After one day of germination, programmed heat dryer will be employed for drying pulses. Briefly, moisture of pulses will be dried from 50% to 20% by air at room temperature. Then, moisture of pulses will be further dried to < 3% by programmed heating. Dried pulses will be milled into pulse flours with Comminutor mill. Pulse protein isolates will be extracted from pulse flours with air classification methods. Pulse functionalities such as thermal properties, protein solubility, water binding capacity, oil binding capacity, emulsification capacity, and RVA viscosity, will be tested. Meat analogues will be prepared with high moisture extrusion cooling by a twin-screw extruder. The optimum extrusion parameters will be determined based on extrudate quality using a central composite response surface methodology design. Ingredients of 60–65% protein, 2% vegetable oil, 5-10% pulse fiber, 20–40% moisture, 160–165 °C and 80–90 rpm will be used to produce extrudates. Extruded samples (35% moisture) will be cut immediately as they exit the die and collected for evaluation of sensory, texture, and digestibility. Quality of meat analogues will be evaluated for density, texture, sensory, aroma compounds, protein profile, and digestibility using a texture analyzer. A square shaped sample (19 × 19 mm) will be cut using a knife blade to 75% of its original thickness at a speed of 2 mm/s and the cutting strength will be recorded. All determinations will be performed with at least 12 replicates. A panel of 60 untrained judges will evaluate the acceptability of pulse meat analogue in terms of beany flavor, mouth feeling, and overall liking. Key aroma compounds analysis will be performed with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A database will be used for identification of compounds according to their mass spectra. Human digestion of meat analogues will be simulated in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin. With the most desired formula developed based on these tests, pulse meat analogues will be developed in pilot scale in a pilot scale twin-screw extruder. Quality of pilot scale meat analogues will be evaluated by the density, texture, sensory, aroma compounds, protein profile, and digestibility as well.