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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Healthy Processed Foods Research » Research » Research Project #438489

Research Project: New Technologies and Methodologies for Increasing Quality, Marketability and Value of Food Products and Byproducts

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

2021 Annual Report

Objective 1: Enable commercially-viable new technologies to detect and mitigate contaminants or defective products from food streams. • Sub-objective 1A: Investigate x-ray as an alternative to gamma for food irradiation. • Sub-objective 1B: Detect and mitigate fruit fly infestation in olives. • Sub-objective 1C: Develop real-time non-destructive analysis of vanilla for adulteration. Objective 2: Utilize advanced analytical and sensory methods to detect, identify, and quantify desirable and undesirable odors and taste defects in raw and processed foods. • Sub-objective 2A: Identify compounds in raw and processed specialty crops including peas and grapes that impact flavor and taste. Identify precursors (and eventually pathways) of these compounds and study flavor variation in different varieties. • Sub-objective 2B: Evaluate almond hulls for use in natural sweeteners or as a supplement to bee diets. Investigate the effects of almond hull phenolics on the acceptability of almond hull sugars in bee diets. Objective 3: Develop commercially-marketable novel, value-added cereal-based healthy, tasty food products. • Sub-objective 3A: Utilize oil seed (canola, sunflower and cotton) waste products to produce gluten-free, high protein flatbreads, snacks and pasta and evaluate for consumer acceptance.

1A: Baby spinach will be used to see if x-ray can replace gamma for food irradiation. The spinach will be inoculated with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and irradiated under x-ray and gamma irradiation. Pathogen populations will be monitored by plate count for differences between treatments of dose vs. population reduction. Should spinach not tolerate irradiation well a different commodity will be used. Other pathogens could also be studied, including Salmonella and Listeria. 1B: X-ray imaging and NIR spectroscopy will be evaluated for detection of olives infested with fruit flies. An olive fly colony will be established on-site for generation of infested samples. Film x-ray images will be acquired and digitized, and NIR spectra acquired. Chemometrics, neural network, discriminant analysis, and k nearest neighbor algorithms will be employed. 1C: NIR spectroscopy will be used to quantify coumarin and ethyl vanillin adulterations in vanilla extracts. Vanilla samples will be diluted using CMR, and NIR spectra obtained. Calibration equations for quantitative prediction will be developed. Collaborators will provide samples of vanilla extract processed using the method of green drying which bypasses the traditional curing process. NIR spectra will be acquired and calibrations developed to differentiate between vanilla extract processed under green drying vs. the traditional manner. Should the high ethanol and water concentrations in vanilla extract and concentrate make it impossible to obtain reliable calibrations, evaporation techniques will be developed to remove the ethanol and water and the remaining residue will be used to acquire spectra. 2A: Flavor compounds in peas and grapes will be quantified, precursors identified, and flavor variation studied between varieties. Pea protein will be produced from pea flour under spray drying and drum drying with different time and temperature conditions, and Grosch’s method of flavor analysis will be applied along with identification and quantification of saponins in pea flour and protein. GC-MS spectra will be matched to those in established libraries to identify food constituents. Aroma models will be compared with the food products by sensory panels. 2B: Sugars will be eluted from almond hulls using water and their composition determined by HPLC. Anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamates will be identified by comparison of retention times and UV/Vis spectra of unknown peaks with those of authentic standards. Weight and total phenolic content will be determined for each extract. Bee diet samples will be developed using a 25 °Brix solution of almond hull extract. 3A: Canola, sunflower and cotton seeds will be used to produce gluten-free products with high protein content and consumer acceptance. Various formulations of gluten-free cereal flours, seed meal vegetables and “condiments” will be used to produce pasta, snacks, and flatbread and presented to sensory panels. Proximate analysis will be applied to measure protein, fat, ash and moisture at each stage of processing. Those products that form crust (flatbreads and snacks) will be evaluated for acrylamide levels using LC-MS.

Progress Report
In support of Sub-objective 1A, new light-weight x-ray tubes and cables have been acquired for use in a novel benchtop/mobile irradiator that will facilitate studies into x-ray as an alternative to radioisotopes for food irradiation. The new x-ray tubes are designed for line scan operation and thus have a large angle of x-ray coverage (100 degrees) as compared to the older version (20 degrees). Thus, a dual tube design will allow much higher throughput of irradiated samples. The new irradiator is nearly completed, lacking only the final layers of shielding. Literature searches have been conducted to identify the most appropriate protocols for inoculation of samples of commercial baby spinach with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). In support of Sub-objective 1B, an olive fly colony has been established on-site using infested olives found in the field. Protocols for the collection of near-infrared (NIR) samples and x-ray images have been established following previous work with similar commodities and pests. In support of Sub-objective 1C, protocols have been investigated for inoculation of vanilla samples to mimic adulteration with coumarin and ethyl vanillin. In support of Sub-objective 2A, a new mass spectral database (Wiley Registry of Mass Spectral Data, 12th Edition, containing an additional 41,450 spectra in the library) was obtained to facilitate the identification of pea protein flavor constituents. In support of Sub-objective 2B, a grant proposal entitled “Partnership: Development of a Natural Food Sweetener and Functional Food Ingredients from Almond Hulls” was submitted to National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). In support of Sub-objective 3A, flatbreads of 12 varieties of colored rice were formulated and their proximate composition and acrylamide content determined. Flatbreads of an additional seven varieties of colored corn were formulated and analyzed as with the rice varieties. Amino acid analysis of a variety of flatbreads derived from pigmented rice or corn has been conducted. Data is being evaluated.


Review Publications
Yang, X., Liu, Y.-B., Simmons, G., Light, D.M., Haff, R.P. 2020. Nitric oxide fumigation for control of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, on walnut. Journal of Applied Entomology. 145(3):270-276.
Bilbao-Sainz, C., Zhao, Y., Takeoka, G.R., Williams, T.G., Wood, D.F., Chiou, B., Powell-Palm, M., Wu, V.C., Rubinsky, B., McHugh, T.H. 2020. Effect of isochoric freezing on quality aspects of minimally processed potatoes. Journal of Food Science. 85(9):2656-2664.
Tasie, M.M., Altemimi, A.B., Ali, R., Takeoka, G.R. 2020. Study of physicochemical properties and antioxidant content of mango (mangifera indica l.) fruit. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 4(2):91-104.
Kahlon, T.S., Haff, R.P., Brichta, J.L. 2021. High protein gluten free snack foods based on whole grain flour and vegetables. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 12(5):407-417.
Moscetti, R., Berhe, D.H., Agrimi, M., Haff, R.P., Liang, P., Ferri, S., Monarca, D., Massantini, R. 2020. Pine nut species recognition using NIR spectroscopy and image analysis. Journal of Food Engineering. 292. Article 110357.
Bilbao-Sainz, C., Sinrod, A., Dao, L.T., Takeoka, G.R., Williams, T.G., Wood, D.F., Chiou, B., Bridges, D.F., Wu, V.C., Lyu, C., Powell-Palm, M.J., Rubinsky, B., McHugh, T.H. 2021. Preservation of grape tomato by isochoric freezing. Food Research International. 143. Article 110228.
Hnasko, R.M., Jackson, E.S., Lin, A.V., Haff, R.P., McGarvey, J.A. 2021. A rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the detection of gluten in foods. Journal of Food Chemistry. 355. Article 129514.
Che, H., Zhang, Y., Jiang, S., Jin, T., Lyu, S., Nadeau, K.C., McHugh, T.H. 2019. Almond (prunus dulcis) allergen pru du 8, the first member of a new family of food allergens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 67(31):8626-8631.