Location: Poultry Microbiological Safety and Processing Research Unit
Project Number: 6040-32000-079-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Mar 30, 2021
End Date: Mar 29, 2026
1. Identify and determine the presence and contributing factors for antimicrobial resistant foodborne bacteria in poultry and poultry-associated environments. 1.1. Determine the association of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in foodborne bacteria with resistance to biocides, metals, coccidiostats, and ionophores used in poultry husbandry and processing. 1.2. Evaluate the bacterial metagenome of retail poultry. 1.3. Identify and evaluate markers (resistance genes, genetic elements, virulence genes) to define outbreak and persistent foodborne bacteria in poultry. 1.4. Identify antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes (ARCs) and accumulation on plasmids. 2. Identify and evaluate biological and chemical intervention products and alternatives to antimicrobials to control or reduce foodborne pathogens in poultry. 2.1. Develop, validate, and produce multi-subunit vaccines to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in broiler chickens. 2.2. Develop antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as alternatives to antibiotics to reduce foodborne pathogens associated with poultry. 2.3. Identify and develop broad-spectrum bacteriocins to eliminate foodborne pathogens in poultry. 2.4. Utilize phage isolation, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and metagenomics to identify lytic phage that target Salmonella and pathogenic Escherichia coli.
Microbial contamination of food products from poultry continues to be a leading cause of foodborne illness. Antibiotics have been used to treat bacterial infections since the mid-twentieth century. Because of their efficacy in treating and preventing disease, antimicrobials have also been widely used in poultry production contributing to antimicrobial resistance (AR) in foodborne pathogens and commensal bacteria. AR among these bacteria has the potential to compromise therapy and remains a global threat to human health. This research project represents a merger of two teams of scientists to provide solutions to colonization of poultry with human pathogens and AR in foodborne pathogens and commensal bacteria from poultry. Two major approaches will be employed: 1) development of alternatives to antibiotics for use in combating foodborne pathogens, and 2) investigations to accurately understand attributes of antimicrobial resistant foodborne pathogens and commensals. Alternatives to antibiotics include vaccines to control foodborne pathogens in live birds while innovative antimicrobial peptides, bacteriocins, and lytic phage will modulate the poultry microbiome to reduce or eliminate colonization by harmful bacteria from poultry to minimize AR and reduce risk to human health. Data generated on resistance to biocides, metals, coccidiostats, and ionophores used in poultry production and processing is a specific concern to the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Research designed to determine ecological niches of foodborne bacteria and identify genetic characteristics facilitating transfer of resistance or a fitness advantage will also benefit FSIS. According to FSIS, increased knowledge of the microbial ecology of antimicrobial resistant pathogens on poultry will result in data that the poultry industry can utilize in development of improved pathogen management strategies. Identification of genetic markers which support survival, persistence, and dissemination of foodborne pathogens, especially those that are resistant to antimicrobials, is critical to this research priority. Data and technology from the proposed research will be used to assist other Federal agencies and the poultry and agricultural biotechnology industry in addressing AR in poultry resulting in safer products for the consumer.