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William G Meikle

Meikle Laboratory

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Willliam G Meikle

Research Entomologist

Carl Hayden Bee Research Center

2000 E Allen Rd, Tucson, AZ, 85719


Phone: (520) 647-9196 Fax: (520) 670-6493



1992     Ph.D.      University of California, Berkeley, Entomology

1982     B.A.         Pomona College, Claremont, CA, Biology


Our current research focuses on developing the use of sensors to model bee colony dynamics and to monitor bee health productivity and performance.

Continuous monitoring provides robust data that allows us to correlate hive events, such as changes in forager activity, with external factors such as weather events, blooms of important flower species, or pesticide application in a neighboring field. Continuously weighing hives (hourly or more often) using electronic sensors is a colony monitoring approach that offers a high information yield with comparatively little hive disturbance. Continuous weight data have been shown to be rich in information on colony growth and consumption, swarming, weather effects and hive abandonment.  Other kinds of data that can provide information on hive health and activity include temperature, humidity, O2 and CO2 concentration, forager traffic, vibration and acoustic signals. Analysis of these data over time may allow us to use continuous monitoring tools to predict hive activities and diagnose colony disorders.



2012-present   Research Entomologist, Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ. 
2009-2012  Research Entomologist, Honey Bee Research Unit, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Weslaco, TX.
2001-2009 Research Entomologist, European Biological Control Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.
1995-2001 Principal and Associate Scientist, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Calavi, Benin.
1993-1995 Post-doctoral Fellow, IITA, Calavi, Benin.
1989-1992 Rockefeller Predoctoral Fellow, IITA, Calavi, Benin.


Research and Teaching Assistantships, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
1984-1986 Peace Corps Volunteer, The Gambia.






Meikle, W.G., and C. Nansen. U.S. Patent Number 8,226,938. Biocontrol of Varroa Mites. November 2011.


Journal Articles

Colin T, Plath JA, Klein S, Vine P, Devaud J-M, Lihoreau M, Meikle WG,  Barron AB (2020) The miticide thymol in combination with trace levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid reduces visual learning performance in honey bees (Apis mellifera). Apidologie (in press). doi:10.1007/s13592-020-00737-6.

Meikle WG, Weiss M, Beren E (2020) Landscape factors influencing honey bee colony behavior in Southern California commercial apiaries. Scientific Reports 10: 5013. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61716-6.

Bandyopadhyay R, Cardwell KF, Ortega-Beltran A, Schulthess F, Meikle WG, Sétamou M,  Cotty PJ (2019) Identifying and managing plant health risks for key African crops: maize. Agricultural Sciences Neuenschwander, P. and M. Tamò (eds.) Critical issues in plant health: 50 years of research in African agriculture. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, Cambridge, UK (ISBN: 978 1 78676 232 0).

Colin T, Meikle WG, Paten AM, Barron AB (2019) Long-term dynamics of honey bee colonies following exposure to chemical stress. Science of the Total Environment 667:660-670. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.402.

Colin T, Meikle WG, Wu X, Barron AB (2019) Traces of a neonicotinoid induce precocious foraging and reduce foraging performance in honey bees. Environmental Science and Technology 53(14): 8252-8261. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b02452.

Hopper KR, Oppenheim SJ, Kuhn KL, Lanier K, Hoelmer KA, Heimpel GE, Meikle WG, O’Neil RJ, Voetglin DE, Wu K-M, Woolley JB, Heraty JM (2019) Variation in host specificity among populations of an aphid parasitoid. Evolutionary Applications 12(4): 655-860. doi:10.1111/eva.12759.

Meikle WG, Corby-Harris V, Carroll MJ, Weiss M, Snyder LA, Meador CAD, Beren E, Brown N (2019) Exposure to sublethal concentrations of methoxyfenozide disrupts honey bee colony activity and thermoregulation PLoS ONE 14(3): e0204635. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0204635.

Ricigliano VA, Mott BM, Maes P, Floyd AS, Fitz W, Copeland DC, Meikle WG, Anderson KE (2019) Honey bees benefit from the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP): critical colony-level traits enhanced by CRP landscapes. Scientific Reports 4894. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-41281-3.

Alburaki M, Chen D, Skinner JA, Meikle WG, Tarpy DR, Adamczyk JJ, Stewart SD (2018) Honey bee survival and pathogen prevalence: From the perspective of landscape and exposure to pesticides. Insects 9(2), 65. doi:10.3390/insects9020065

Carroll MJ, Meikle WG, McFrederick QS, J.A. Rothman, Brown N, Weiss M, Ruetz Z, Chang E (2018) Pre-almond supplemental forage improves colony survival and alters queen pheromone signaling in overwintering honey bee colonies. Apidologie 49(6): 827-837.

Colin T, Bruce J, Meikle WG, Barron AB (2018) The development of honey bee colonies assessed using a new semi-automated brood counting method: CombCount. PLoS ONE 13(10): e0205816. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205816.

Holst, N, Meikle WG (2018) Breakfast Canyon discovered in honey bee hive weight curves. Insects 9(4): 176. doi:10.3390/insects9040176.

Meikle WG, Adamczyk JJ, Weiss M, Gregorc A (2018) Effects of bee density and sublethal imidacloprid exposure on cluster temperatures of caged honey bees. Apidologie 49(5): 581-593. doi:10.1007/s13592-018-0585-z.

Meikle WG, Holst N, Colin T, Weiss M, Carroll MJ, McFrederick QS, Barron AB (2018) Using within-day hive weight changes to measure environmental effects on honey bee colonies. PLoS ONE 13(5): e0197589. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0197589

Patt J, Meikle WG, Niedz RP, Woods D (2018) Synthetic ligands of olfactory binding proteins mediate aggregation response of Asian citrus psyllid in the presence of host-plant volatiles. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:1891. doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.01891.

Rothman JA, Carroll MJ, Meikle WG, Anderson KE, McFrederick QS (2018) Longitudinal effects of supplemental forage on the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) microbiota and inter- and intra-colony variability. Microbial Ecology (2018). Doi:10.1007/s00248-018-1151-y

 Alburaki M, Steckel SJ, Chen D, McDermott E, Weiss M, Skinner JA, Kelly H, Lorenz G, Tarpy DR, Meikle WG, Adamczyk JJ, Stewart SD (2017) Landscape and pesticide effects on honey bees: forager survival and expression of acetylcholinesterase and brain oxidative genes. Apidologie 48(4):556-571. doi:10.1007/s13592-017-0497-3.

Alburaki M, Steckel SJ, Williams MT, Skinner JA, Kelly H, Lorenz G, Tarpy DR, Meikle WG, Adamczyk JJ, Stewart SD (2017) Agricultural landscape and pesticide effects on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) biological traits. Journal of Economic Entomology110(3): 835–847. DOI:10.1093/jee/tox111

Hopper K, Lanier K, Rhoades JH, Hoelmer KA, Meikle WG, Heimpel GE, O'Neil RJ, Voegtlin DG, Woolley JB (2017) Host specificity of Aphelinus species collected from soybean aphid in Asia. Biological Control 115: 55-73. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.09.004.

Meikle WG, Weiss M (2017) Monitoring colony-level effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on honey bees. Journal of Visualized Experiments (129) e56355. DOI:10.3791/56355.

Meikle WG, Weiss M, Maes PW, Fitz W, Snyder LA, Sheehan T, Mott BM, Anderson KE (2017) Internal hive temperature as a means of monitoring honey bee colony health in a migratory beekeeping operation before and during winter. Apidologie 48:666–680. doi:10.1007/s13592-017-0512-8.

Meikle WG, Adamczyk JJ, Weiss M, Gregorc A, Johnson DR, Stewart SD, Zawislak J, Carroll MJ, Lorenz GM (2016) Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony growth and activity at three sites in the U.S. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0168603. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168603

Meikle WG, Weiss M, Stilwell AR (2016) Monitoring colony phenology using within-day variability in continuous weight and temperature of honey bee hives. Apidologie 47:1-14; doi:10.1007/s13592-015-0370-1.

Meikle WG, Holst N (2015) Application of continuous monitoring of honey bee colonies. Apidologie 46:10–22 doi:10.1007/s13592-014-0298-x.

Meikle WG, Holst N, Cook SC, Patt JM (2015) Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) reproduction in laboratory and field experiments. Journal of Economic Entomology 108 (3): 887-893; doi:10.1093/jee/tov101.

Patt JM, Chow A, Meikle WG, Gracia C, Jackson M, Flores D, Sétamou M, Dunlap C, Avery P, Hunter W (2015)  Efficacy of an autodisseminator for an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to suppress Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in residential citrus. Biological Control 88: 37-45.

Mankin R, Hagstrum D, Nansen C, Meikle WG (2014) Almond moth oviposition patterns in continuous layers of peanuts. Journal of Stored Products Research 59: 48-54.

Nansen C, Meikle WG (2014) Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations. Molecular Plant Pathology 15(3): 223–225.

Patt JM, Stockton D, Meikle WG, Sétamou M, Mafra-Neto A, Adamczyk JJ (2014) Innate and conditioned responses to chemosensory and visual cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing pathogens. Insects 5: 921-941; DOI:10.3390/insects5040921.

Chow A, Dunlap C, Flores D, Jackson M, Meikle WG, Sétamou M, Patt JM (2013) Development of a pathogen dispenser to control Asian citrus psyllid in residential and organic citrus. Citrograph Jan./Feb. 30-35.

Meikle WG, Bon M-C, Cook S, Gracia C, Jaronski S (2013) Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Biocontrol Science and Technology 23(2): 220-233. doi:10.1080/09583157.2012.753406.

Nansen C, Stokes B, James J, Porter P, Shields EJ, Wheeler T, Meikle WG (2013) Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles. Journal of Economic Entomology 106 (2): 648-652. doi:10.1603/EC12380.

Patt JM, Woods D, Spiros D, Meikle WG, Stockton D, Lapointe SL, Mafra-Neto A (2013) Novel synthetic ligands enhance the behavioral responses of Asian Citrus Psyllid to naturally occurring host plant volatiles. American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Chapter 8: 111-124. doi:10.1021/bk-2013-1141.ch008.

Dietemann V, Pflugfelder J, Anderson D, Charrière J-D, Chejanovsky N, Dainat B, de Miranda J, Delaplane K, Dillier F-X, Fuchs S, Gallmann P, Gauthier L, Imdorf A, Koeniger, Kralj J, Meikle WG, Pettis J, Rosenkranz P, Sammataro D, Smith D, Yañez O, Neumann P (2012) Varroa destructor: Research avenues towards sustainable control. Journal of Apicultural Research 51(1): 125-132. doi:10.3896/IBRA.

Meikle WG, Diaz R (2012) Factors affecting pupation success of the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida Murray. Journal of Insect Science 12: 118.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Guermache, F, Bon M-C (2012) Pseudomonas contamination of a fungus-based biopesticide: implications for honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) health and varroa mite (Acari: Varroidae) control. Biological Control 60: 312–320. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.12.004.

Meikle WG, Patt JM, Sammataro D (2012) Intraspecific competition effects on Aethina tumida (Col.: Nitidulidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 105(1):26-33. doi:10.1603/EC11273.

Meikle WG, Sammataro D, Neumann P, Pflugfelder J (2012) Challenges for developing biopesticides against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae). Apidologie 43(5): 501-514. doi:10.1007/s13592-012-0118-0.

Patt JM, Pfannenstiel RS, Meikle WG, Adamczyk JJ (2012) Supplemental diets containing yeast, sucrose, and soy powder enhance the survivorship, growth, and development of prey-limited cursorial spiders. Biological Control 63 (3): 237-245. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.02.004.

Meikle WG, Patt JM (2011) The effects of temperature, diet and other factors on development, survivorship and oviposition of the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Col.: Nitidulidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104(3): 753-763. doi:10.1603/EC10364.

Nansen C, Meikle WG (2011) The economic injury level and the action threshold in stored-product systems. Stewart Postharvest Reviews 7(3): art. no. 3. doi:10.2212/spr.2011.3.3.

Patt JM., Meikle WG, Mafra-Neto A, Sétamou M, Mangan R, Malik N, Adamczyk JJ (2011) Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Environmental Entomology 40(6): 1494-1502. doi:/10.1603/EN11149.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Annas F, Holst N (2009) Effects of multiple applications of a Beauveria-based biopesticide on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) densities in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 48(3):220-222. doi:10.3896/IBRA.

Nansen C, Flinn P, Hagstrum D, Toews MD, Meikle WG (2009) Interspecific associations among stored-grain beetles. Journal of Stored Products Research 45:254–260.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Holst N, Girod V (2008) Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health. Experimental and Applied Acarology 46:105–117. doi:10.1007/s10493-008-9160-z.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Holst N, Nansen C, Girod V (2008) Impact of a treatment of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) on honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony health and on Varroa destructor mites (Acari: Varroidae). Apidologie 39: 1-13. doi:10.1051/apido:2007057

Meikle WG, Rector BG, Mercadier G, Holst N (2008) Within-day variation in continuous hive weight data as a measure of honey bee colony activity. Apidologie 39: 694-707. doi:10.1051/apido:2008055

Nansen C, Meikle WG, Campbell J, Phillips TW, Subramanyam B (2008) A binomial and species-independent approach to trap capture analysis of flying insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 101(6): 1719-1728.

Girod V, Mercadier G, Meikle WG (2007) Du nouveau dans la lutte biologique contre Varroa destructor [What's new in biological control of Varroa destructor]. Bulletin Technique Apicole 33(4): 187-196.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Girod V (2007) Les micro-champignons, nouvel espoir dans la lutte biologique contre Varroa destructor [Micro-fungi, new hope in biological control of Varroa destructor]. Abeilles & Cie 118(3): 14-19.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Holst N, Nansen C, Girod V (2007) Duration and spread of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes), used to treat Varroa mites, Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), in honeybee  (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(1): 1-10.

Holst N, Kryger P, Meikle WG (2006) Portræt af en vokstavle [Portrait of a honeycomb]. Tidssskrift for Biavl [Journal of Apiculture, Denmark] 140(10): 314-316.

Meikle WG, Holst N, Mercadier G, Derouané F, James RR (2006) Using balances linked to dataloggers to monitor honeybee colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 45(1): 39-41.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Girod V, Derouané F, Jones WA (2006) Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from varroa mites in southern France. Journal of Apicultural Research 45(3): 219-220.

Nansen C, Meikle WG, Phillips TW (2006) Ovipositional response of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to size, quality, and number of food patches. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99(2): 253-260.

Poinar GO Jr, Meikle WG, Mercadier G (2006) Chroniodiplogaster formosiana sp. n. (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae) from Chinese populations of Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera:Termitidae). Journal of Nematology 38(2): 181-186.

Meikle WG, Mercadier G, Rosengaus RB, Kirk AA, Derouané F, Quimby PC (2005) Evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) obtained from Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of applied Entomology 129(6): 315-322.

Vowotor K, Meikle WG, Ayertey JN, Markham RH (2005) Distribution of and association between the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in maize stores. Journal of stored Products Research 41(5): 498-512.

Nansen C, Meikle WG, Tigar B, Harding S, Tchabi A (2004) Non-agricultural hosts of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in West African forests. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97(3) 481-491.

Quimby PC, Gras S, Widmer T, Meikle WG, Sands D (2004) Formulation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for use against Cirisium arvense. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 19: 491-495.

Holst N, Meikle WG (2003) Teretrius nigrescens against larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus in African maize stores: biological control at work? Journal of Applied Ecology 40(2): 307-319.

Hurlbert S, Meikle WG (2003) Pseudoreplication, fungi, and locusts. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(3): 533-535.

Meikle WG, Jaronski S, Mercadier G, Quimby PC (2003) A distributed delay routine-based simulation model of Beauveria bassiana conidial stability in response to environmental stressors. BioControl 48: 561-578.

Adda, C., Borgemeistern C, Biliwa A, Meikle WG, Markham RH, Poehling H-M (2002) Integrated pest management in post-harvest maize: a case study from the Republic of Togo (West Africa). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93(1-3): 305-321.

Meikle WG, Markham RH, Nansen C, Holst N, Degbey P, Azoma K, Korie S (2002) Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer's perspective. Journal of Economic Entomology 95(5): 1079-1088.

Meikle WG, Rees D, Markham RH (2002) Biological control of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7: 123-138.

Nansen C, Meikle WG (2002) The biology of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7: 91-104.

Nansen C, Meikle WG, Korie S (2002) Spatial analysis of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) flight activity near maize stores and in different forest types in southern Benin, West Africa. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95(1): 66-74.

Boateng BA, Ayertey JN, Meikle WG (2001) Population dynamics of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky in a traditional barn: the influence of maize variety and season. Journal of Ghana Science Association 3(3): 62-69.

Meikle WG, Cherry A, Holst N, Hounna B, Markham RH (2001) The effects of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes), on Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae), Sitophilus zeamais (Col.: Curculionidae) and grain losses in stored maize in the Benin Republic. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 77(3): 198-205.

Nansen C, Korie S, Meikle WG, Holst N (2001) Sensitivity of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) flight activity to environmental variables in Benin, West Africa. Environmental Entomology 30(6): 1135-1143.

Nansen C, Tchabi A, Meikle WG (2001) Successional sequence of forest types in a disturbed dry forest reserve in southern Benin, West Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17(4): 525-539.

Holst N, Meikle WG, Markham RH (2000) Grain injury models for Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rural maize stores in West Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(4): 1338-1346.

Meikle WG, Holst N, Degbey P, Oussou R (2000) An evaluation of sequential sampling plans for the larger grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and of visual grain assessment in West Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(6): 1822-1831.

Ayertey JN, Meikle WG, Borgemeister C, Camara M, Markham RH (1999) Studies on predation of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Col., Curculionidae) at different densities on maize by Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col., Histeridae). Journal of Applied Entomology 123: 265-271.

Meikle WG, Holst N, Markham RH (1999) A simulation model of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rural grain stores in Benin. Environmental Entomology 28(5): 836-844.

Nansen C, Korie S, Meikle WG (1999) CANOCO and SADIE - softwares packages for spatial analysis of pheromone trap catches of maize storage pest and its biological control agent. Journal of Tropical Forest Resources. 15(2): 146-158.

Oussou R, Meikle WG, Markham RH (1999) Factors affecting the development and survivorship of larvae of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis. Insect Science and its Application 18(1): 53-58.

Meikle WG, Adda C, Azoma K, Borgemeister C, Degbey P, Djomamou B, Markham RH (1998) Varietal effects on the density of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Col.: Curculionidae) in grain stores in Benin Republic. Journal of Stored Products Research 34(1): 45-58.

Meikle WG, Holst N, Scholz D, Markham RH (1998) A simulation model of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in rural grain stores in Benin. Environmental Entomology 27(1): 59-69.

Meikle WG, Markham RH, Holst N, Djomamou B, Schneider H, Vowotor KA (1998) Distribution and sampling of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in maize stores in Benin. Journal of Economic Entomology 91(6): 1366-1374.

Vowotor KA, Meikle WG, Ayertey JN, Borgemeister C, Markham RH (1998) Intraspecific competition in larvae of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) within maize grains. Insect Science and its Application 18(3): 171-175.

Borgemeister C, Meikle WG, Adda C, Degbey P, Markham RH (1997) Seasonal and meteorological factors influencing the annual flight cycle of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and its predator Teretriosoma nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Benin. Bulletin of Entomological Research 87(3): 239-246.

Scholz D, Borgemeister C, Meikle WG, Markham RH, Poehling H-M (1997) Infestation of maize by Prostephanus truncatus initiated by male-produced pheromone. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 83(1): 53-61.

Adda C, Borgemeister C, Meikle WG, Markham RH, Olaleye I, Abdou KS, Zakari MO (1996) First record of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), in the Republic of Niger. Bulletin of Entomological Research 86(1): 83-85.

Meikle WG, Gutierrez AP, Herren HR (1996) Decision-making by smallholder farmers in an oil-palm-based economy in southern Benin, West Africa. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 73: 217-225.

Markham RH, Bosque-Pérez N, Borgemeister C, Meikle WG (1994) Developing pest management strategies for the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus, in the humid and sub-humid tropics. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 42(3): 97-116.