Submitted to: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/18/1997
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seedmeals are processing byproducts of the oil extraction of the seeds. Both crambe and meadowfoam seed contain high levels of glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Glucosinolates and their degradation products have limited the usefulness of the seedmeals as animal feed. Since some of the degradation products are similar to synthetic soil pesticides and are biologically active, the meals may be of benefit as soil amendments for alternatives to currently-available pesticides. We have shown that both seedmeals were phytotoxic to several plant species when added to soil at levels of 1% or more. 1-Cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) and (3-methoxyphenyl) acetonitrile (3-MPAN) were identified as the major phytotoxins from crambe and meadowfoam seedmeals, respectively. Both seedmeals were equally effective against Meloidogyne chitwoodi, a root-knot nematode species that blemishes potato tubers in the Northwestern states of the U.S. We suspect that CHB and 3-MPAN are primarily responsible for the toxicity of the seedmeals to nematodes. Presently, the utility of both seedmeals as environmentally friendly nematicides is under investigation in the field.