Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/9/1996
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Sap beetles of the genus Carpophilus are pests in a wide variety of agricultural products, and a project was conducted to identify pheromones of the beetles as future pest management tools. Male-produced aggregation pheromones, to which both males and females respond, were identified for nine Carpophilus species. All contain alkyl-branched, conjugated, triene or tetaene hydrocarbons, which were previously unknown compounds. Chromatographic isolation, spectral identification, and synthesis of these are summarized. A wind-tunnel bioassay was used to guide pheromone isolation, but activity of the chemicals was eventually verified in the field. The pheromones are dramatically synergized by volatiles from fermenting food materials. There was some cross attraction to the pheromones. The beetles produce the compounds in a specialized tissue within the abdomen, and a polyketide biosynthesis is described. Trapping parameters such as trap type, trap height, pheromone dose, and decrease of septum activity over time were studied. Practical uses of the pheromones in insect management are discussed.