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ARS Home » Southeast Area » New Orleans, Louisiana » Southern Regional Research Center » Commodity Utilization Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #404910

Research Project: Development of Novel Cottonseed Products and Processes

Location: Commodity Utilization Research

Title: Breeding of high seed oil oleate levels into Upland cotton from wild Gossypium barbadense L. germplasm.

item DOWD, MICHAEL - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item Shockey, Jay
item McCarty, Jack
item Jenkins, Johnie

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/2/2023
Publication Date: 11/21/2023
Citation: Dowd, M.K., Shockey, J., Mccarty Jr, J.C., Jenkins, J.N. 2023. Breeding of high seed oil oleate levels into Upland cotton from wild Gossypium barbadense L. germplasm. Crop Science. 63(6):3393-3401.

Interpretive Summary: Vegetable oils with high levels of oleic acid are desirable because they tends to be more stable at elevated temperatures, making these oils useful in applications like deep fat frying. To allow cottonseed oil to compete for these applications, cotton plants were breed to increase their levels of oleic acid. The normal level of oleic acid in cotton seed oil is 15 to 19% present. By using standard breeding techniques, cotton plants were developed having about 55% oleic acid. The results should be useful to cotton breeders and oil processors that might be interested in exploiting this trait.

Technical Abstract: A high seed oil oleate trait identified in wild Gossypium barbadense L. cotton accession GB713 (PI 608139) was bred into Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) cultivar ‘Sure-Grow 747’ (SG747, PVP 9800118). Starting from the F2 generation of an initial cross between SG747 and GB713, plants were selected by measuring the seed oil fatty acid distributions by gas chromatography. Selected F3 plants were crossed to M Rk-Rn 6, a line previously created from GB713 and SG747 for improved nematode resistance. High-oleate plants were selected in the F2 population. Selected plants were then crossed to HOa1 (a ~35% oleate line derived from M Rk-Rn 1), and high-oleate plants were again selected in the F2 population. F3 plants were re-selected for the high-oleate trait, and four selected F4 lines were evaluated in 2022 field plots. The four lines had oleate levels between 52 and 57%, approximately triple that found in normal cottonseed oil (15'19%) and greater than in either the high-oleate wild GB713 parent (~40%) or in the previously released HOa cotton plant lines (33-35%). The increased oleate levels occurred with an approximately equal reduction in linoleic acid. Other seed and fiber properties were largely like those of SG747, although some residual GB713 character existed within the lines. The resulting oil composition should be ideal for use in deep fat frying, with the high level of oleic acid improving the oil’s oxidative stability but with sufficient linoleic acid to maintain frying flavor.