Location: Commodity Utilization Research
Project Number: 6054-41000-113-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Jun 2, 2020
End Date: Jun 1, 2025
As directed by ARS research priorities, this proposal is focused on four broad objectives. Objective 1: Develop novel cottonseed oil products with traits to maintain and enhance market value. Sub-Objective 1a. Develop G. hirsutum cotton germplasm with 40% oleic acid in its seed oil. Sub-Objective 1b. Identify and characterize the additional genetic elements that contribute to the high oleic acid trait in GB713. Sub-Objective 1c. Modify cyclopropane synthase genes to reduce the levels of CPFAs in cotton tissues. Sub-Objective 1d. Modify and combine cotton and other plant genes to increase production of DHSA in lipids of roots, seeds, and other tissues. Objective 2: Explore reported seed quality concerns to improve seed quality. Objective 2a. Determine the magnitude and range of seed hull fracture resistance of the Gossypium species that produce usable cotton fiber. Sub-objective 2b. Determine the relative importance of genetics, environment, and their interaction on the fracture resistance of cottonseed. Sub-objective 2c. Develop a method to measure the propensity of cottonseed to be damaged during convening or ginning. Sub-objective 2d. Study the rate of deterioration in the quality of whole and damaged cottonseed under different storage conditions. Objective 3: Study the potential for using the whole seed and defatted protein meal of low-gossypol plant lines in food applications. Sub-objective 3a. Develop acidic juices and drinks fortified with cottonseed protein. Sub-objective 3b. Develop cottonseed-based butter and spread products. Sub-objective 3c. Develop cottonseed protein-based food-grade films to improve food shelf life. Objective 4: Develop new or modified processing methods to increase the value of processed products from cottonseed. Objective 4a. Recover the tocopherol and sterol components of deodorization distillate and add these back to deodorized cottonseed oil to improve its stability.
Several analytical, chemical, physical, microbiological, and genetic techniques will be employed to achieve the project goals. Genetic manipulation, molecular biology, and classical breeding methods will be used to study the synthesis of the cyclopropyl fatty acids and to increase seed oil oleic acid levels. Gas chromatography will be used to determine oil fatty acid profiles, which are needed in several objectives. Various physical and chemical techniques will be employed at the laboratory level to study seed durability and hardness. Some developmental work will be needed to develop a technique that can be used to test for seed durability. Chemical and physical techniques will be used to formulate ingredients and food products from seed kernels and to isolate high protein fractions to use to generate film products. Some of these potential products will also be evaluated by sensory panels. The processing objective will utilize a number of chemical fractionation methods to either eliminate unwanted components or to extract potentially useful components from deodorizer distillate.