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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #404372

Research Project: Strategies to Reduce Mycotoxin Contamination in Animal Feed and its Effect in Poultry Production Systems

Location: Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research

Title: Dose-response effects of combined fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone mycotoxins on the 1-alpha hydroxylase m-RNA expression and blood biochemistry

item Shanmugasundaram, Revathi
item APPLEGATE, TODD - University Of Georgia
item MURUGESAN, RAJ - Dsm Animal Nutrition And Health
item Glenn, Anthony - Tony

Submitted to: Poultry Science Association Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/21/2023
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: N/A

Technical Abstract: The poultry-finished diets are very often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. The presence of multiple mycotoxins in the chicken finished diet below the FDA tolerance limits [50 mg/kg fumonisins; and 5 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON)] can have a negative impact on poultry health and performance. There are no readily available blood biomarkers that can detect subclinical mycotoxicosis in chickens. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of subclinical doses of fumonisin B1 (FB1), DON, and zearalenone (ZEN) mycotoxins on performance and to determine if any of the blood biochemical parameters can be utilized as a biomarker in poultry. A total of 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to eight treatments that were replicated in six pens with varying doses of mycotoxins. (1) Control, (2) 21mg FB1 + 3mg DON + 1 mg ZEN, (3) 8mg FB1 + 3 mg DON + 0.6mg ZEN, (4) 17mg FB1 + 1.0 mg DON + 0.7mg ZEN, (5) 5.0mg FB1 + 0.4mg DON + 0.1mg ZEN, (6) 2.0mg FB1 + 2.5mg DON + 0.9mg ZEN, (7) 0.5mg FB1 + 1.0mg DON + 0.3mg ZEN, and (8) 0.8mg FB1 + 0.5mg DON + 0.1mg ZEN per kg diet. At d21, blood samples were collected from one bird per pen (n = 6), and the biochemical blood variables were analyzed using the Zoetis Vetscan VS2. The kidney and liver samples were analyzed for 1- alpha hydroxylase. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s posthoc test was applied to separate the means. The birds in treatment group 2, had a significantly lower BWG (P = 0.05) and an increased FCR of 17 points compared to the control group. Treatment groups 2, 3, 4, and 6 showed significantly increased levels of aspartate amino transferase, creatinine kinase, total protein, and phosphorus compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating potential hepatic damage. Treatment groups 2, 4, 5, and 6 also showed significantly decreased levels of potassium, and glucose compared to control groups (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 1- alpha hydroxylase in the kidney were significantly decreased by 2.2-fold (P < 0.05) in treatment group 2 compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in uric acid or calcium concentrations among the treatment groups. Overall, the findings suggest that even subclinical doses of combined mycotoxins below 2.0mg FB1 + 2.5mg DON + 0.9mg ZEN, can negatively impact functional metabolism, causing potential liver and kidney damage. The changes in blood biochemical parameters, particularly creatinine kinase and aspartate amino transferase, could serve as potential biomarkers but further work is needed to ascertain the ontogeny of biomarker change and if these changes would be specific to a mycotoxin or combination of mycotoxin contamination to detect early mycotoxicosis in broilers. Keywords: Mycotoxins, Blood chemistry, 1-alpha hydroxylase