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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #403415

Research Project: Strategies to Reduce Mycotoxin Contamination in Animal Feed and its Effect in Poultry Production Systems

Location: Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research

Title: Dose-response effects of combined doses of fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone mycotoxins on major T-cell subsets and tight junction protein expressions in broiler chickens

item Shanmugasundaram, Revathi
item SHAHNA, FATHIMA - University Of Georgia
item DAVIS, MARY - Orise Fellow
item MURUGESAN, GANAPATHI RAJ - Biomin America, Inc
item APPLEGATE, TODD - University Of Georgia
item Glenn, Anthony - Tony

Submitted to: World Mycotoxins Forum
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/27/2023
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Abstract Only

Technical Abstract: Fumonisins (FUM), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN) mycotoxins impair gut health and integrity in broilers by decreasing enterocyte proliferation, tight junction protein synthesis, and trans-epithelial electrical resistance. The presence of multiple mycotoxins, even at subclinical doses below the US-FDA tolerance limits (50 mg/kg for FUM and 5 mg/kg for DON), can have a negative impact on poultry health. This study evaluated the compounded effects of graded subclinical doses of FUM, DON, and ZEN on the T cell percentages and jejunal tight junction proteins in broilers. A total of 960 one-day-old chicks were assigned to either one of the following eight treatments with six replicates each. (1) Control diet (0.8mg FUM and 0.4mg DON) (2) 33mg FUM + 3mg DON + 1 mg ZEN (3) 26mg FUM + 1 mg DON + 0.2mg ZEN (4) 14mg FUM + 3.5mg DON + 0.7mg ZEN (5) 7.7mg FUM + 0.4mg DON + 0.1mg ZEN (6) 3.6mg FUM + 2.5mg DON + 0.9mg ZEN (7) 0.8mg FUM + 1.0mg DON + 0.3mg ZEN and (8) 1mg FUM + 0.5mg DON + 0.1mg ZEN per kg diet. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, and Tukey’s posthoc test was applied. On d14, 3.6mg FUM + 2.5mg DON + 0.9mg ZEN significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, and CD4+CD25+ cell percentages in the cecal tonsils and spleen, and this trend continued until d35 (P = 0.07), compared to the control group. At d14, 33mg FUM + 3mg DON + 1.0 mg ZEN significantly decreased the total IgA (P < 0.05) by 20% in bile, and this trend continued until d35 (P = 0.08). At d21 and d28, 0.8mg FUM + 1.0mg DON + 0.3mg ZEN significantly decreased the total IgA concentration by 20% and 17%, respectively, compared to the control group. At d35, 3.6mg FUM + 2.5mg DON + 0.9mg ZEN significantly decreased the jejunal Claudin-1 mRNA by 4.8-fold and Claudin-4 mRNA by 6.9-fold, compared to the control group. Claudin-2 expression did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Broilers fed diets contaminated with at least 3.6mg FUM + 2.5mg DON + 0.9mg ZEN per kg had decreased T-cell percentages, total IgA, and Claudin-1 mRNA expression. Thus, broilers are sensitive to the ingestion of multiple mycotoxins, which, even at subclinical doses, leads to immunosuppression and gut inflammation, decreasing the overall health and welfare of broilers.