Location: Toxicology & Mycotoxin ResearchTitle: Yeasts and yeast-based products in poultry nutrition
|FATHIMA, SHANA - University Of Georgia|
|SIFRI, MAMDUH - Sifri Solutions Llc|
|SELVARAJ, RAMESH - University Of Georgia|
Submitted to: Journal of Applied Poultry Research
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/13/2023
Publication Date: 2/16/2023
Citation: Fathima, S., Shanmugasundaram, R., Sifri, M., Selvaraj, R. 2023. Yeasts and yeast-based products in poultry nutrition. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 32(2):100345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japr.2023.100345.
Interpretive Summary: Yeast and yeast fermentation products have been used in the feed industry for more than a decade to improve the growth and feed efficiency of livestock. Yeast and yeast cell wall products modulate the immunity and reduce the pathogen infections in poultry. The gut microbial population is changed by dietary and environmental factors. Dietary yeast products interacts with the gut microbes and host immune system to confer health benefits to the host. The yeast cell wall is composed of complex carbohydrates, which act as a energy source for beneficial microbes in the gut. Yeast is a source of crude protein and can be used as a protein source in poultry feed. Yeast supplementation promote the growth of beneficial microorganism. Understanding the interaction between the gut microbes and yeast, and host immune response will benefit the poultry industry.
Technical Abstract: The poultry industry is interested in alternatives to antibiotics to improve production performance and reduce the incidence of enteric diseases. For more than a decade, yeast and yeast fermentation products have been used in the feed industry to improve the growth and feed efficiency of livestock. The yeast cell wall is comprised of the polysaccharides mannans, chitin, ß-1,3-glucans, and 1,6-glucans which are the major bioactive molecules that can impart health benefits to the host. Yeast and yeast cell wall products modulate the host immune response, reduce the load of pathogens, and ameliorate the pathologic effects of enteric infections in poultry. The principal mechanisms of action of yeast probiotics and prebiotics are competitive exclusion and antagonism, immunomodulation, effect on digestive enzymes, and direct nutritional benefits. However, only a few species of yeast, such as Saccharomyces have been thoroughly studied for their probiotic potential. Novel probiotic yeast species, such as Pichia, have recently been shown to have probiotic and prebiotic properties and demand further investigation. A thorough understanding of the poultry gut mycobiota is required to formulate tailor-made probiotics and prebiotics for avian enteric diseases.