Skip to main content
ARS Home » Plains Area » Manhattan, Kansas » Center for Grain and Animal Health Research » ABADRU » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #396306

Research Project: Predicting and Mitigating Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in North America

Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research

Title: Vesicular stomatitis virus-Indiana and Culicoides sonorensis biting midges: insights into vector competency

item CAMERON-HARP, KELLY - Kansas State University
item Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey
item Drolet, Barbara

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/22/2022
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Interpretive Summary not required in accordance with ARS-115 Publications P & P 152.1 v.5 (10/19/2019) chapter 5 page 31 Matrix for Data Entry Determinations. Kmm

Technical Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an economically important, reportable, zoonotic disease of cattle, horses, and swine, transmitted via insect vectors and by direct contact. Unlike the New Jersey (NJ) serotype, Indiana (IN) rarely causes outbreaks. Yet in the summer of 2019, infections were confirmed in cattle and horses from 472 premises across eight states. We hypothesized that the Culicoides sonorensis biting midge, a known vector for VSV-NJ, would be a competent vector for VSV-IN. Thus, a time-course infection study was conducted in midges using a 2019 Indiana field isolate to determine whether virus would disseminate from the midge midguts and into the heads and salivary glands by day 10 post-feeding. Midges were fed a 1:1 mixture of sheep’s blood and stock virus. Post feeding, fully engorged females were sorted, heads and bodies were separated and sampled at day 3, 8, or 10. Vero cell monolayers were used to confirm infectious virus by cytopathic effects (CPE). RNA extraction and RT-qPCR was performed from the cell culture samples. CPE was visible for 100% of day 0 and day 3 samples, 0% of day 8 samples, and 40% of day 10 samples. RT-qPCR detected virus in 100% of day 0 and day 3 samples, 40% of day 8 samples, and 90% of day 10 samples. The results demonstrated that by day 3 the virus has disseminated from the midgut to the head. The CPE indicated that the virus remains infectious through day 10 and suggests potential vector competence. This work has applications for insect control protocols during future outbreaks. Future replicate studies with additional time points are needed, as well as a better understanding of virus titers in VSV-IN infected livestock lesions on which midges feed in nature.