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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #395331

Research Project: Development of New Value-Added Processes and Products from Advancing Oilseed Crops

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: Industrial grain hemp variety trial in Illinois - 2021

item Evangelista, Roque
item PARRISH, ALLEN - University Of Illinois
item JOOS, DARIN - University Of Illinois
item ALBERTI, PHILLIP - University Of Illinois
item Cermak, Steven - Steve
item Hojilla-Evangelista, Milagros - Mila
item Berhow, Mark

Submitted to: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/31/2022
Publication Date: 10/9/2022
Citation: Evangelista, R., Parrish, A., Joos, D., Alberti, P., Cermak, S., Hojilla-Evangelista, M., Berhow, M. 2022. Industrial grain hemp variety trial in Illinois - 2021 [abstract]. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Annual Meeting. p. 62.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Industrial hemp field trials consisting of two grain varieties (Henola and USO 31) and four multi-purpose varieties (NWG 2463, 2730, 4000 and 4113) were conducted to evaluate their suitability for commercial production in Illinois. Overall agronomic performance and grain quality traits were evaluated. The experimental plot was of Flanagan silt loam type with 2% slope. The field was fertilized with liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 112 kg/ha. An alpha-lattice experimental design with four replicates and plots of six 19 cm rows x 4.9 m in length were employed. Target seeding rates were 160 and 270 pure live seeds/m2 and planting depth was 2.0-2.5 cm. Vegetative samples taken from all varieties tested below the legal limit of 0.3% THC. Harvested grains were dried for 48 hours at 60 oC, cleaned and then weighed to determine grain yields. Grains were analyzed for oil, crude protein, ash and total carbohydrates (by difference) content. The fatty acid composition of the oils was also determined. Conditions in Illinois were ideal during the entire 2021 industrial hemp growing season. Emergence started to occur four days after planting (DAP), but no variety achieved the target population after two weeks. Ninety percent flowering was attained 48 DAP. Hemp was able to outcompete most weeds observed which had relatively low abundance in the plots used for compiling yield data. Weed pressure increased as plants senesced and canopies opened or in plots with poor emergence. USO 31 and Henola plants were shorter at 129 and 139 cm, respectively, compared with the 160-180 cm height of NWG varieties. Grain yields from Henola and NWG lines varied from 140 to 166 g/m2 while that of USO 31 was much lower (38-50 g/m2) due to late harvest. USO 31 had the largest grain (15.7 g/1000) and NWG 2730 had the smallest grain (12.5 g/1000). However, the true density of the grains of all varieties were the same (1.13 g/cc). The grain’s oil content varied from 28.4 to 32.3% while the crude protein content was the same (24.8 ± 0.3%). Fatty acid composition of the oil is typical of hemp, with the major fatty acids being linoleic (55.6 ± 1.0%), a-linolenic (16.2 ± 1.2%), oleic (12.9 ± 0.5%) and palmitic (7.6 ± 0.3%). Seed quality parameters (germination, emergence, vigor, etc.) are highly variable across and within hemp varieties/cultivars and germplasm sources and must be accounted for to ensure good stand establishment and development. The varieties evaluated were able to be planted and harvested using conventional field equipment common to Midwestern crop production systems. However, more research will be needed to determine which cultivars are best suited to Illinois conditions to produce a grain of high yield and quality.