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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #391664

Research Project: Development of New Value-Added Processes and Products from Advancing Oilseed Crops

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: Processing of silflower (Silphium integrifolium) seeds to obtain oil and enriched protein meal

item Evangelista, Roque
item Hojilla-Evangelista, Milagros - Mila
item Cermak, Steven - Steve
item VAN TASSEL, DAVID - The Land Institute

Submitted to: Annual Meeting and Expo of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/22/2022
Publication Date: 4/30/2022
Citation: Evangelista, R.L., Hojillaevangelista, M.P., Cermak, S.C., Van Tassel, D.L. 2022. Processing of silflower (Silphium integrifolium) seeds to obtain oil and enriched protein meal [abstract]. American Oil Chemists' Society Annual Meeting and Expo.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Silflower (Silphium integrifolium Michx.), a perennial plant in the sunflower family, has been a promising subject for domestication as an oilseed crop. This work was carried out to investigate the seed processing aspect of this effort. Selected physical properties of the seed were evaluated, seed milling to obtain enriched kernel fraction was conducted, and initial characterization of the seed protein was performed. There was wide variation in seed length (11.5 to 20.8 mm), width (4.6 to 11.8 mm), and thickness (0.9 to 1.6 mm). The thousand seed weight was 23.8 g but the tapped bulk density was only 189.6 g/L due to the presence of wing around the seed’s periphery. The kernel accounted for 56.1% of the seed weight and contained 31.0% oil. An enriched kernel fraction with 79.6% purity was obtained by roller-milling, sifting, and air classification. Linoleic (62.3%) and oleic (19.6%) acids were the major fatty acids in the oil. The defatted enriched kernel fraction contained 63.4% crude protein. Globulin, glutelin, albumin, and prolamin accounted for 55.6%, 19.3%, 16.4%, and 8.7% of the soluble proteins, respectively. At an extraction pH of 9, protein solubility was 62%. Maximum solubility (70%) was obtained at pH 10 while minimum solubility of 9% occurred between pH 4 and 5.5. Aside from the oil, the dehulling of silflower seeds also produced a high-protein defatted meal, which may be used as is or as a starting material for enriching the protein further into a protein isolate.