Location: Commodity Utilization ResearchTitle: Chemical composition and thermogravimetric behaviors of glanded and glandless cottonseed kernels
Submitted to: Molecules
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/1/2022
Publication Date: 1/5/2022
Citation: He, Z., Nam, S., Zhang, H., Olanya, O.M. 2022. Chemical composition and thermogravimetric behaviors of glanded and glandless cottonseed kernels. Molecules. 27(1):316. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010316.
Interpretive Summary: Research efforts have been made to produce a new type of cottonseed in which gossypol is present only at trace amounts. The new type is called “glandless” (Gl) one and the traditional type “glanded” (Gd) cottonseed. In this research work, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Thermogravimetric (TG)-FTIR were applied to evaluate the thermochemical properties of Gd and Gl cottonseed kernels. The resulting data revealed apparent differences in thermogravimetric properties between the two kernel samples, as well as between the raw and extracted kernel samples as some components in glanded kernels were more prone to thermal decomposition than glandless kernels. This investigation increased the understanding on the thermal behaviors and mechanisms of cottonseed kernels. Such increased knowledge would help in optimizing the heating processes (e. g., roasting and frying) of cottonseed kernels for enhanced food application and pyrolysis strategies of unconsumable cottonseed or defatted meals for bio-oil and biochar production.
Technical Abstract: Common “glanded” (Gd) cottonseeds contain the toxic compound gossypol that restricts human consumption of the derived products. The “glandless” (Gl) cottonseeds of a new cotton variety, in contrast, show a trace gossypol content, indicating the great potential of cottonseed for agro-food applications. This work comparatively evaluated the chemical composition and thermogravimetric behaviors of the two types of cottonseed kernels. In contrast to the high gossypol content (3.75 g kg-1) observed in Gd kernels, the detected gossypol level in Gl kernels was only 0.06 g kg-1, meeting FDA’s criteria as human food. While the gossypol gland dots in Gd kernels were visually observed, scanning electronic microcopy was not able to distinguish the microstructural difference between ground Gd and Gl samples. Chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that Gl kernels and Gd kernels had similar composition, but the former was slightly higher in protein, starch, and phosphorus contents. Thermogravimetric (TG) processes of both kernels were based on three stages of drying, de-volatilization, and char formation. TG-FTIR analysis revealed apparent spectral differences between Gd and Gl samples, as well as between raw and extracted cottonseed kernel samples, indicating that some components in Gd kernels were more susceptible to thermal decomposition than Gl kernels. The TG and TG-FTIR observations suggested that the Gl kernels could be heat treated (e. g., frying and roasting) at an optimal temperature of 140-150 oC for food applications. On the other hand, optimal pyrolysis temperatures would be much higher (350-500 oC) for Gd cottonseed and its defatted residues for non-food bio-oil and biochar production.