Location: Bio-oils ResearchTitle: A novel heterogeneous superoxide support-coated catalyst for production of biodiesel from roasted and unroasted Sinapis arvensis seed oil
|HANIF, MARYAM - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan|
|BHATTI, HAQ - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan|
|ASIF HANIF, MUHAMMAD - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan|
|RASHID, UMER - Universiti Putra Malaysia|
|HANIF, ASMA - Government College Women University Faisalabad|
|ALSALME, ALI - King Saud University|
Submitted to: Catalysts
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/7/2021
Publication Date: 11/23/2021
Citation: Hanif, M., Bhatti, H.N., Asif Hanif, M., Rashid, U., Hanif, A., Moser, B.R., Alsalme, A. 2021. A novel heterogeneous superoxide support-coated catalyst for production of biodiesel from roasted and unroasted Sinapis arvensis seed oil. Catalysts. 11(12). Article 1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11121421.
Interpretive Summary: Disadvantages of biodiesel include the use of edible oils for fuel production, generation of wastewater, and inability to recycle catalysts from the production process. The aim of this study was to utilize low-cost, inedible oil extracted from wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) seeds to produce biodiesel using a new catalyst that can be recovered and reused. This has the advantages of reducing production costs while also reducing wastewater generation. This research revealed that the biodiesel produced from Sinapis seed oil was acceptable as an alternative, low-cost, nonfood alternative to conventional diesel fuel. This research also revealed that a new catalyst, sodium superoxide, has an important advantage over currently used catalysts for commercial production of biodiesel, which is the ability to recover the catalyst and use it again. Overall, the properties of the biodiesel fuel are comparable to that of soybean-based biodiesel, thus indicating its acceptability as a new source of biodiesel fuel. These results will be important to biodiesel producers, distributors, and end-users (customers) because a new biodiesel fuel and a new biodiesel catalyst were described that exhibit favorable properties. This research may ultimately improve market penetration, availability, and public perception of renewable agricultural fuels such as biodiesel, thus affording greater national independence from petroleum-based fuels.
Technical Abstract: Disadvantages of biodiesel include consumption of edible oils for fuel production, generation of wastewater and inability to recycle catalysts during homogenously catalyzed transesterification. The aim of the current study was to utilize low-cost, inedible oil extracted from Sinapis arvensis seeds to produce biodiesel using a novel nano-composite superoxide heterogeneous catalyst. Sodium superoxide (NaO2) was synthesized by reaction of sodium nitrate with hydrogen peroxide via spray pyrolysis, followed by coating onto a composite support material prepared from silicon dioxide, potassium ferricyanide and granite. The roasted (110 deg. C, 20 min) and unroasted S. arvensis seeds were subjected to high vacuum fractional distillation to afford fractions (F1, F2 and F3) that correlated to molecular weight. For example, F1 was enriched in palmitic acid (76–79%), F2 was enriched in oleic acid (69%) and F3 was enriched in erucic acid (61%). These fractions, as well as pure unroastedand roasted S. arvensis seed oils, were then transesterified using NaO2/SiO2/PFC/Granite to givebiodiesel a maximum yield of 98.4% and 99.2%, respectively. In contrast, yields using immobilized lipase catalyst were considerably lower (78–85%). Fuel properties such as acid value, cetane number, density, iodine value, pour point, and saponification value were within the ranges specified in the American biodiesel standard, ASTM D6751, where applicable. These results indicated that the nanocomposite catalyst was excellent for production of biodiesel from unroasted and roasted S. arvensis seed oil and its fractions.