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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania » Eastern Regional Research Center » Sustainable Biofuels and Co-products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #388067

Research Project: Thermo-Catalytic Biorefining

Location: Sustainable Biofuels and Co-products Research

Title: Comparison of Solvent Systems on Extraction, Quality Indices and Volatile Compounds of Palm Kernel Oil

item ASUZU, PEACE - Delaware State University
item ASARE-OKAI, PAPA NII - University Of Delaware
item Wyatt, Victor
item TAWIAH, NII - Delaware State University
item Jones, Kerby
item ARYEE, ALBERTA N.A. - Delaware State University

Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/13/2023
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Oilseeds are very important agricultural products and are characterized by having oil contents that range from 30-50 percent. Though the oil palm is notably known for producing palm oil, palm kernel oil (PKO), which has different properties from palm oil, contains 45 – 55 percent oil. This study shows the correlation among the solvent systems used to extract oil, oil quality, and volatile compounds composition. Optimizing the solvent systems used to extract the PKO will aid in the ability to retain or remove flavor and sensory components of the oil. The results of this study can open new markets for palm kernel oil applications in several food industries.

Technical Abstract: Palm kernel oil (PKO) is a yellowish oil with a distinct odor, containing a high percentage of saturated fatty acids, especially lauric acid. It has been reported that the physicochemical properties of PKO depend on several criteria, including method of processing. The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties and volatile compounds of PKO extracted using four solvent systems; hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), hexane: acetone (1:1 v/v; HEX: ACE) and dichloromethane: acetone (1:1 v/v; DCM: ACE). DCM gave the highest yield (50 percent) of PKO among the solvents. Oils recovered from the different solvent extractions contained 3.98-4.41 percent FFA and had the following physicochemical and thermal properties: PV: 10.0 - 18.0 mgKOH/g; '-AV: 1.35 - 5.3 AnV; TBA: 0.002 - 0.029 mg of MDA/kg of oil; SV: 548.38 - 624.11 mgKOH/g; and total enthalpy of 88.56 to 109.51. Oils extracted with solvent systems containing ACE had higher values of the physicochemical parameters evaluated compared to HEX and DCM extracts. A total of 426 volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS in all extracts made up of 6 alcohols, 18 acids, 24 ketones, 54 esters, and 310 hydrocarbons with higher numbers of volatiles in the HEX and DCM extractions. Octanoic acid, a naturally occurring free fatty acid in PKO and an aroma-active compound was found to be the most abundant volatile acid. The results show that knowledge of the effects of solvent systems on quality and volatile composition of PKO can be a useful guide to the choice of solvents for PKO extraction depending on the intended application.