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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #387921

Research Project: Development of New Value-Added Processes and Products from Advancing Oilseed Crops

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: Physical properties and processing of Silphium integrifolium seeds to obtain oil and enriched protein meal

item Evangelista, Roque
item Hojilla-Evangelista, Milagros - Mila
item Cermak, Steven - Steve
item VAN TASSEL, DAVID - The Land Institute

Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/24/2022
Publication Date: 11/12/2022
Citation: Evangelista, R.L., Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P., Cermak, S.C., Van Tassel, D.L. 2022. Physical properties and processing of Silphium integrifolium seeds to obtain oil and enriched protein meal. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 100(1):81-89.

Interpretive Summary: Silflower is a perennial relative of sunflower, which can be grown in areas that are not suitable for traditional crops such as corn and soybeans. This drought tolerant plant is being developed into a valuable commodity food crop which is a good source of both oil and protein. ARS scientists in Peoria, Illinois, have conducted the first study on processing silflower seeds. The process starts with removing the seed hull by roller-milling, followed by sifting and air classification to produce enriched kernel meal with high oil content. Using an oil extraction method,the meal's protein could be increased to the level of a protein concentrate. This high-protein meal may be used as is or further processed into a 90% pure protein product. This work is a step toward the goal of making silfower a fully developed crop of significant acreage, which will contribute towards food production and contribute to farm economies.

Technical Abstract: Silphium integrifolium Michx. (Silflower) has been a promising subject for domestication as a perennial oilseed crop. This work was carried out to investigate the seed processing aspect of this effort. Thousand seed weight, densities, and dimension of the seeds were evaluated, seed milling to obtain enriched kernel fraction was conducted, and initial characterization of the seed protein was performed. There was wide variation in flat seed length (11.5–20.8'mm), width (4.6–11.8'mm), and thickness (0.9–1.6'mm). The thousand seed weight was 23.8 g but the tapped bulk density was only 189.6 g/L due to the presence of wing around the seed's periphery. The kernel accounted for 56.1% of the seed weight and contained 31.0% oil. A kernel-enriched fraction with 79.6% purity was obtained by roller-milling, sifting, and air classification. Linoleic (62.3%) and oleic (19.6%) acids were the major fatty acids in the oil. The defatted enriched kernel fraction contained 63.41% crude protein. Globulin, glutelin, albumin, and prolamin accounted for 55.6%, 19.3%, 16.4%, and 8.7% of the soluble proteins, respectively. At an extraction pH of 9, protein solubility was 62%. Maximum solubility (70%) was obtained at pH 10 while minimum solubility of 9% occurred between pH 4 and 5.5. Aside from the oil, the dehulling of silflower seeds also produced a high-protein defatted meal, which may be used as is or as a starting material for enriching the protein further into a protein isolate.