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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #385738

Research Project: New High-Value Biobased Materials with Applications Across Industry

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: A novel route of mixed catalysis for production of fatty acid methyl esters from potential seed oil sources

item PERVEEN, SHAZIA - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan
item HANIF, MUHAMMAD - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan
item NADEEM, RAZYIA - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan
item RASHID, UMER - Universiti Putra Malaysia
item AZEEM, MUHAMMAD - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan
item ZUBAIR, MUHAMMAD - University Of Gujrat
item NISAR, NUMRAH - Lahore College For Women University
item ALHARTHI, FAHAD - King Saud University
item Moser, Bryan

Submitted to: Catalysts
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/29/2021
Publication Date: 7/1/2021
Citation: Perveen, S., Hanif, M.A., Nadeem, R., Rashid, U., Azeem, M.W., Zubair, M., Nisar, N., Alharthi, F.A., Moser, B.R. 2021. A novel route of mixed catalysis for production of fatty acid methyl esters from potential seed oil sources. Catalysts. 11(7). Article 811.

Interpretive Summary: This research reveals that the seed oil from pearl millet, a plant found in developing countries in Asia and Africa, is an acceptable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this study was to produce biodiesel from sunflower, mustard and pearl millet seed oils using three production methods and to evaluate their fuel properties taking into consideration important biodiesel fuel standards. Overall, the properties of biodiesel prepared from pearl millet seed oil were comparable to those of sunflower and mustard-based biodiesel, thus that pearl millet seed oil-based biodiesel is acceptable. These results will be important to biodiesel producers, distributors, and end-users (customers) because a new biodiesel fuel was described that exhibits favorable fuel properties. This research may ultimately improve market penetration, availability, and public perception of domestically produced agricultural fuels such as biodiesel, thus affording greater national independence from imported petroleum-based fuels.

Technical Abstract: Depleting petroleum resources coupled with the environmental consequences of fossil fuel combustion have led to the search for renewable alternatives, such as biodiesel. In this study, sunflower (Helianthus annus), mustard (Brassica compestres) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) seed oils were converted into biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) by acid-, base- and lipase-catalyzed transesterification, and the resultant fuel properties were determined. The methyl esters displayed superior iodine values (102-139), low densities, and a high cetane number (CN). The highest yield of biodiesel was obtained from mustard seed oil, which provided cloud (CP) and pour (PP) points of -3.5 and 5 °C, respectively, and a CN of 53. The sunflower seed oil methyl esters had a density of 0.81-0.86 kg/L at 16 °C, CP of 2 °C, PP of -8 °C, and a CN of 47. The pearl millet seed oil methyl esters yielded a density of 0.87-0.89 kg/L, CP and PP of 4 ºC and -5 ºC, respectively, and a CN of 46. The major fatty acids identified in the sunflower, mustard, and pearl millet seed oils were linolenic (49.2%), oleic acid (82.2%), and linoleic acid (73.9%), respectively. The present study reports biodiesel with ideal values of CP and PP, to extend the use of biodiesel at the commercial level.