|KAUR, NANCYDEEP - Guru Nanak Dev University|
|SINGH, BALWINDER - Khalsa College|
|KAUR, AMRITPAL - Guru Nanak Dev University|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/15/2022
Publication Date: 4/19/2022
Citation: Kaur, N., Singh, B., Kaur, A., Yadav, M.P. 2022. Impact of growing conditions on proximate, mineral, phenolic composition, amino acid profile, and antioxidant properties of black gram, mung bean, and chickpea microgreens. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.16655.
Interpretive Summary: Legume microgreens are emerging as nutritional and functional food products due to their health benefits. They are young and immature baby plants produced from the legume seeds. Legume microgreens can be used as a new ingredient in soups, salads, sandwiches, and smoothies due to their intense flavor, fine texture, and high nutritional value. They are beneficial in reducing the risk of cancers, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular diseases, oxidative stress, and inflammatory disorders. These health benefits prompted us to study the effect of growing mediums on the chemical, nutritional and phenolic composition of microgreens juice powder (MJP) from different legumes. We studied the effect of three different growing mediums (soil, coco-peat with nutrient solution and water) on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of MJP from black gram, mung bean and chickpea. Our studies showed that MJP of chickpea had higher antioxidant properties, total phenolic, flavonoid and chlorophyll contents than the MJP of mung bean and black gram. While the MJP of mung bean had higher protein content, total essential and non-essential amino acids than the other two sources. The soil grown MJP had higher ash content, total chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant activity, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. The MJP from legumes grown using coco-peat with nutrient solution showed higher yield, protein content and level of essential and non-essential amino acids. The MJP of legumes grown using water had the lowest antioxidant properties, minerals, amino acids, and phenolic contents. The results of this study can be of great value to the Indian and US agricultural and food processing industries.
Technical Abstract: Influence of growing media on proximate, minerals, chlorophyll, amino acids (AAs), phenolics and antioxidant activity of black gram, mung bean and chickpea microgreens juice powder (MJP) was investigated. Legume seeds were steeped (8h), sprouted (36h), cultivated using soil, water and coco-peat with nutrient solution (CNS) and their microgreens were harvested on the tenth day of germination. The yield, moisture, ash content (AC) and protein content (PC) of MJP varied from 7.31-11.09%, 5.63-8.96%, 9.31-13.63% and 51.07-60.41%, respectively. The total chlorophyll content (TCC), flavonoid content (TFC), phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (TAA) ranged from 3.42-5.23 mg/g, 16.03-28.18 mg QE/g, 7.46-12.52 mg GAE/g and 9.51-14.59 µmol TE/g, respectively. The total phenolic acids and flavonoids were more in soil grown MJP while CNS grown MJP had high AAs. The MJP of soil grown chickpea exhibited highest AC, TCC, Mg, K, Ca, TPC, TFC and TAA, while the CNS grown mung bean MJP had abundant essential and non-essential AAs.