Submitted to: Fuel
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/12/2022
Publication Date: 1/21/2022
Citation: Yosief, H.O., Sarker, M.I., Bantchev, G.B., Dunn, R.O., Cermak, S.C. 2022. Physico-chemical and tribological properties of isopropyl-branched chicken fat. Fuel. 316. Article 123293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.123293.
Interpretive Summary: In this study, inedible chicken fat was collected from a local rendering house to modify it chemically at molecular level improving its’ physical and tribological properties. The modified chicken fat was analyzed using a combination of different analytical techniques to determine its application-based properties. In comparison with regular chicken fat and conventionally used base oils for lubricant industry, modified chicken fat has shown better oxidative-stability, higher kinematic viscosity and density. This study demonstrated that animal fats could be chemically modified to improve their physicochemical properties and that’s why can be considered as alternative renewable sources for generating value-added products such as ingredients for bio-lubricant industry.
Technical Abstract: Vegetable oils have been extensively investigated as renewable resources to replace petroleum-based products such as lubricants and fuels. However, animal fats have not been extensively investigated as renewable resource to generate products like lubricants and biofuels. Here we explored the possibility of utilizing chicken fat as a lubricant by changing its physical and tribological properties through chemical modification. Chicken fat was chemically modified by introducing isopropyl group into the unsaturated fatty acid components of the triglyceride using the industrially produced Lewis acid, ethylaluminum sesquichloride. The modified chicken fat was characterized using a combination of different analytical techniques including GC-MS, NMR and GPC. The physical and tribological properties of the modified and regular chicken fat as well as their blends with high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO) were investigated. Compared to regular chicken fat, the modified chicken fat displayed higher density but their solubility in HOSuO and Polyalphaolefin (POA-6) was found to be similar. The modified chicken fat also exhibited better oxidative-stability, higher kinematic viscosity but lower viscosity index compared to the regular chicken fat and HOSuO. Unlike the regular chicken fat, blending of modified chicken fat with HOSuO led to an increase in density and improvement in oxidative stability. This study demonstrated that animal fats could be chemically modified to improve their physicochemical properties like that of vegetable oils and they can be considered as alternative renewable resources for generating value-added products such as biolubricants for various applications.