Location: Food Quality LaboratoryTitle: Genomic analyses of Multiple Penicillium species revealed diverse mycotoxin gene clusters and novel loci mediating oxylipin synthesis involved in volatile signaling
|YIN, GUOHUA - Institute Of Tropical Bioscience And Biotechnology, Chinese Academy Of Tropical Agricultural Scienc|
|ZHANG, YULING - Institute Of Tropical Bioscience And Biotechnology, Chinese Academy Of Tropical Agricultural Scienc|
|FU, MAOJIE - Institute Of Tropical Bioscience And Biotechnology, Chinese Academy Of Tropical Agricultural Scienc|
|BU, LIJING - University Of New Mexico|
|Hua, Sui Sheng|
|GUO, ANPING - Institute Of Tropical Bioscience And Biotechnology, Chinese Academy Of Tropical Agricultural Scienc|
|BENNETT, JOAN - Rutgers University|
Submitted to: The Journal of Fungi
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/7/2021
Publication Date: 9/9/2021
Citation: Yin, G., Zhang, Y., Pennerman, K.K., Jurick II, W.M., Fu, M., Bu, L., Hua, S.T., Guo, A., Bennett, J.W. 2021. Genomic analyses of Multiple Penicillium species revealed diverse mycotoxin gene clusters and novel loci mediating oxylipin synthesis involved in volatile signaling. The Journal of Fungi. 7(9):743. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090743.
Interpretive Summary: Mycotoxins contaminate stored fruit and vegetables and contribute to reductions in product quality that also incite food waste and loss. Many mycotoxins are harmful to human and animal health and the fungi that produce these compounds cause decay and rot during storage. Patulin and citrinin, the focal mycotoxins of this study, cause harm even in the absence of the fungi that produce it. Therefore, it is clear these mycotoxin not just impact humans, but also their fruit host and non-target organisms. The current study sought to examine the impact patulin, citrinin, and oxylipins on fungi and non-target organisms. As conventional methods of decay control (e.g. fungicides) are being reduced, alternatives are being sought to reduce food waste from mycotoxin producing fungi. The current study showed the susceptibility of various organisms to the above compounds and to elucidate their mode of action. Through these discoveries, improvements can be made to maintain fruit quality during storage and simultaneously reduce mycotoxin contamination via development and translation of novel control strategies.
Technical Abstract: Blue mold of apple is caused by several different Penicillium species, in which P. expansum and P. solitum are amongst the most common. P. expansum is the most aggressive, and P. solitum is very weak when infecting apple fruit during storage. In this study, we report complete genomic analyses of three different Penicillium species: P. expansum R21 and P. solitum NJ1, isolated from stored apple fruit; and P. sclerotiorum 113, isolated in 2013 from a flooded home as an indoor air contaminant. Patulin and citrinin gene cluster analyses explained the lack of patulin production in P. solitum NJ1 compared to P. expansum R21 as all three strains did not produce citrinin. A Drosophila bioassay demonstrated that volatiles emitted by P. solitum strains (SA and RS1) were more toxic than those from P. expansum and P. crustosum strains (R27, R11, R21, G10, and R19). The toxicity was hypothesized to be related to production of eight-carbon oxylipins. Putative lipoxygenase genes were identified in P. expansum, P. crustosum and P. sclerotiorum strains, but not in P. solitum. Our data will provide a better understanding of Penicillium spp. complex secondary metabolic capabilities, especially concerning the genetic bases of mycotoxins and toxic VOCs.