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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Crop Bioprotection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #376673

Research Project: New Microbial and Plant-Based Agents for Mosquito Control

Location: Crop Bioprotection Research

Title: Fenitrothion bio-efficacy on different intradomicile surface types against Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann in the main malaria endemic regions of Panama

item CARERRA, L - Gorgas Memorial Institute Of Health Studies
item Ramirez, Jose
item TORRES-COSME, ROLANDO - Gorgas Memorial Institute Of Health Studies

Submitted to: Otherlast Otherfirst Otherinitial
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/23/2021
Publication Date: 11/1/2021
Citation: Caceres, L., Ramirez, J.L., Torres-Cosme, R. 2021. Fenitrothion bio-efficacy on different intradomicile surface types against Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann in the main malaria endemic regions of Panama. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Travel Medicine. 5(2): Article e000153.

Interpretive Summary: The use of insecticides continues to be one of the most important tools used to control mosquito vectors and prevent disease outbreaks. Its use inside dwellings have been proven to be efficacious in the control of malaria. However, their frequent use can lead to the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations, and detrimental to vector control strategies. Thus, it is important to continuously monitor the level of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. This study evaluated the efficacy of the insecticide fenitrothion and the level of resistance in mosquitoes from seven communities that are frequently affected by malaria in Panama. The results shows that this insecticide remains highly effective against malaria mosquito vectors and active for several months following application. This study provides important information that can be used by public health agencies when using this insecticide to control mosquito vectors.

Technical Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of intradomicile residual insecticide on a large scale is a proven and efficacious intervention against malaria mosquito vectors. OBJECTIVES: Determine the bio-efficacy and resistance of fenitrothion insecticide against the mosquito An. (Nys.) albimanus Wiedemann. METHODS: This study included seven communities located in different endemic regions where fenitrothion is used to control An. (Nys.) albimanus populations. The test of bio-efficacy and susceptibility were conducted following the WHO standard bioassay methodology. FINDINGS: The average percent mortality of An. (Nys.) albimanus exposed to fenitrothion in the seven communities tested were 96% and 92% for the first two months. This bio-efficacy was maintained until the fifth month with 81% mortality in communities with high IRS coverage. Anopheles (Nys.) albimanus was susceptible to the organophosphate insecticides fenitrothion and malathion, as well as to carbamate Propoxur but resistant to pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos. MAIN CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that fenitrothion maintains an elevated insecticide residuality and toxic effect on different types of surfaces until the fifth month post-application. Furthermore, An. (Nys.) albimanus remains highly susceptible to this insecticide, providing a high degree of protection against mosquito bites inside households, and interrupting malaria transmission in places with high IRS coverage and where the mosquito is still susceptible to fenitrothion application.