Submitted to: Fibers and Polymers
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/20/2020
Publication Date: 10/31/2020
Citation: Chang, S., Condon, B., Smith, J., Nam, S. 2020. Flame resistant cotton fabric containing casein and inorganic materials using an environmentally-friendly microwave assisted technique. Fibers and Polymers. 21:2246-2252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-020-9965-x.
Interpretive Summary: Flame retardant (FR) finishing treatments based on casein with phosphorous and nitrogen containing inorganic materials such as urea and diammonium phosphate have been applied to cotton fabrics using microwave-assisted technology. The FR treated fabrics produced a higher char residue when compared with untreated control fabric. In conclusion, all the formation of casein with urea/diammonium phosphate are promising flame retardants for applications to cotton textiles, but the flame retardancy by the burning rate and the heat of combustion and the char yield. We have developed an efficient microwave assisted method for fabric treatment which has the advantages of shorter reaction time and simple procedure. Overall, our results expose that most of the flame retardant treated fabrics showed better anti-flammable activity than the control fabric.
Technical Abstract: New methods for formulating flame retardant cotton fabrics were achieved by employing applying a microwave-assisted technique with low amounts of solvent. Our trials at flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with casein from bovine milk and eco-friendly inorganic materials, urea and diammonium phosphate, were completed successfully. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 45°angle (clothing textiles test), and limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests were carried out on the treated cotton fabrics and showed favorable results. When the treated fabrics were tested using the 45°angle flame, we observed that the ignited fabrics self-extinguished and left behind a streak of char. Treated higher add-on fabrics were neither consumed by flame, nor produced glowing ambers upon self-extinguishing. All untreated cotton fabrics showed limiting oxygen index (LOI) values of about 18% oxygen in nitrogen. For formulations with casein, urea and diammonium phosphate, LOI values of treated fabrics were 32.0-44.0% oxygen in nitrogen when add-on values for the formulation were 9.71-23.5 wt %. Furthermore, SEM was employed to characterize the chemical structure on the treated fabrics, as well as, the surface morphology of char areas of treated and untreated fabrics.