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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Madison, Wisconsin » Vegetable Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #367159

Research Project: Trait Discovery, Genetics, and Enhancement of Allium, Cucumis, and Daucus Germplasm

Location: Vegetable Crops Research

Title: Variation for heat tolerance during seed germination in diverse carrot [Daucus carota (L.)] germplasm

item BOLTON, ADAM - University Of Wisconsin
item NIJABAT, ANEELA - University Of Sargodha
item MAHMOOD-UR-REHMAN, MOHAMMED - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan
item NAVEED, NAIMA HUMA - University Of Sargodha
item MANNAN, A.T.M MAJHARUL - Bangladesh Agricultural University
item ALI, AAMIR - University Of Sargodha
item RAHIM, MOHAMED - Bangladesh Agricultural University
item Simon, Philipp

Submitted to: HortScience
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/30/2019
Publication Date: 9/1/2019
Citation: Bolton, A., Nijabat, A., Mahmood-Ur-Rehman, M., Naveed, N., Mannan, A., Ali, A., Rahim, M., Simon, P.W. 2019. Variation for heat tolerance during seed germination in diverse carrot [Daucus carota (L.)] germplasm. HortScience. 54(9):1470–1476.

Interpretive Summary: Carrot is categorized as a cool-season crop since it performs well in cooler climates than many vegetables, but the ability to develop carrot cultivars for warmer climates has not been examined. The first step for successful crop production is seed germination, so in this study we evaluated seed germination at 35C (95F) in a diverse collection of carrots. Extensive diversity in seed germination under heat stress was observed in both wild carrots and in cultivated carrots, with evidence for tolerance to 35C in numerous breeding stocks. A significant genetic component for heat tolerance was noted. The discovery of tolerant cultivated accessions is promising for carrot breeders, as they may be used to develop heat tolerant cultivars, and is of interest for plant physiologists and molecular biologists studying abiotic stress.

Technical Abstract: Carrot production is constrained by high levels of heat stress during the germination stage in many global regions. Few studies have been published evaluating the effect of heat stress on carrot seed germination or screening for genetic heat stress tolerance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the response of diverse carrot germplasm to heat stress, identify heat tolerant germplasm that may be used by plant breeders, and define the appropriate temperature for assessing heat tolerance in germination carrot seed. To identify an appropriate screening temperature, three commercial hybrids and an open pollinated variety were evaluated at five temperatures (24, 32.5, 35, 37.5, and 40 ºC). In preliminary studies 35 ºC was identified as the optimal temperature for screening heat tolerance of carrot seed. Cultivated and wild carrot plant introductions (n = 270) from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Plant Germplasm System representing 41 countries, inbred lines from the USDA Agricultural Research Service (n = 15), and widely grown commercial hybrids (n = 8) were evaluated for heat tolerance under heat stress and nonstress conditions (35 ºC and 24 ºC, respectively) by calculating absolute decrease in percent germination (AD), inhibition index (II), relative heat tolerance (RHT), and heat tolerance index (HTI). All measurements of heat tolerance identified significant differences among accessions; AD ranged from -13.0% to 86.7%, II ranged from 35.7% to 100.0%, RHT ranged from 0 to 1.36, and HTI ranged from 0.0 to 1.45. The broad sense heritability (H2) calculations ranged from 0.64 to 0.86 for different traits, indicating a moderately strong genetic contribution to the phenotypic variation. Several wild carrot accessions and inbred lines displayed low levels of heat tolerance while cultivated accessions PI 643114 (USA), PI 652400 and PI 652403 (Turkey), PI 652208 (China), and PI 652403 (Russia) were most heat tolerant. This is the first evaluation of heritability for heat stress tolerance during carrot seed germination, the first measure of HTI, and the first correlation calculation between heat and salt tolerance during germination in carrot.