Location: Commodity Utilization ResearchTitle: Animal manure production and utilization: impact of modern concentrated animal feeding operations
|PAGLIARI, PAULO - University Of Minnesota|
|WILSON, MELISSA - University Of Minnesota|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/31/2019
Publication Date: 1/13/2020
Citation: Pagliari, P., Wilson, M., He, Z. 2020. Animal manure production and utilization: impact of modern concentrated animal feeding operations. In: Waldrip, H.M., Pagliari, P.H., He, Z., editors. Animal Manure: Production, Characteristics, Environmental Concerns and Management. ASA Special Publication 67. Madison, WI: ASA and SSSA. p. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.2134/asaspecpub67.c1.
Interpretive Summary: Production of livestock and poultry under confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) has proven to be an effective way to raise a very large number of animals in a small area. However, the practice is also proving to be extremely detrimental to the environment. When manure is applied at agronomic rates, it can be considered a valuable nutrient source and a soil amendment that improves soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. The introductory chapter first compares and discusses six terms used in animal manure management and research communities, then highlights the modern CAFO practices and their impacts on animal manure production and utilization in the US. Education and outreach will be critical so that livestock and poultry farm operators have the best information for making site-specific manure management decisions.
Technical Abstract: The total number of livestock and poultry animals being raised in the US has shown some fluctuation over time. However, from 2012 to 2018, however, there was a consistent increase in every year of approximately 96 million head annually. This trend was fueled by strong growth in global demand over the past decade and net exports of meat are forecast to continue to grow rapidly. Swine and poultry tend to be raised in confinement while beef cattle tend to be raised on rangeland, but then are finished in confinement, while dairy cattle are often fed and milked in confinement but are allowed on pasture periodically. The number of small animal farms have continually decreased since 1982, while the number of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have increased. In the United States, as much as 1.4 billion tons of manure is produced by the 9.8 billion heads of livestock and poultry produced yearly. The manure produced is primarily used as nutrient source for crop production. However, because of the shift towards CAFOs producing most of the meet consumed, the mismatch of manure produced and area to apply the manure is leading to negative environmental impacts.