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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Support the Global Control and Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

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Title: Spatial distribution and risk factors for foot and mouth disease virus in Uganda: Opportunities for strategic surveillance

item MUNSEY, ANNA - University Of Minnesota
item MWIINE, FRANK - Makerere University
item OCHWO, SYLVESTER - Makerere University
item VELAZQUEZ-SALINAS, LAURO - Makerere University
item ADMED, ZAHEER - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item MAREE, FRANCOIS - Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
item Rodriguez, Luis
item Rieder, Aida - Elizabeth
item PEREZ, ANDRES - University Of Minnesota
item VANDERWAAL, KIMBERLY - University Of Minnesota

Submitted to: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/19/2019
Publication Date: 9/5/2019
Citation: Munsey, A., Mwiine, F., Ochwo, S., Velazquez-Salinas, L., Admed, Z., Maree, F.F., Rodriguez, L.L., Rieder, A.E., Perez, A., Vanderwaal, K. 2019. Spatial distribution and risk factors for foot and mouth disease virus in Uganda: Opportunities for strategic surveillance. Preventive Veterinary Medicine.

Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most devastating disease affecting livestock in many endemic countries worldwide. Here we report on the distribution of FMDV-exposed cattle in Uganda, and examined risk factors associated with the disease. As limited resources prevent routine mass vaccination, results presented herein will aid on the improvement of FMD control plans for Uganda, and ultimately, support the control and eradication of the disease in the country.

Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a substantial impact on cattle populations of Uganda, causing short- and long-term production losses and stifling local and international trade. Among some populations in Uganda, production losses amplify food insecurity. Although FMD has persisted in Uganda for more than 60 years, its epidemiology there and in other endemic settings remains poorly understood. Here, we utilized a large-scale cross-sectional study of cattle to elucidate the dynamics of FMD spread in Uganda. Sera samples (n=14,439) from 211 herds were analyzed to determine spatial patterns, and a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model was used to identify risk factors for FMD. Spatial clustering of FMD was evident, with higher risk demonstrated near international borders. Additionally, high cattle density, low annual rainfall, and pastoralism were associated with increased likelihood of FMD sero-positivity. These results provide insights into the complex epidemiology of FMD in Uganda, and will help inform refined control strategies in Uganda and other FMD-endemic settings.