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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania » Eastern Regional Research Center » Sustainable Biofuels and Co-products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #352816

Research Project: Enable New Marketable, Value-added Coproducts to Improve Biorefining Profitability

Location: Sustainable Biofuels and Co-products Research

Title: Effect of different hydrocolloids with gluten proteins, starch and dough microstructure

Author
item Li, Jinxin - Beijing Advanced Innovation Center For Food Nutrition And Human Health, Beijing Technology & Busine
item Yadav, Madhav
item Zhu, Yunping - Beijing Advanced Innovation Center For Food Nutrition And Human Health, Beijing Technology & Busine
item Li, Jinlong - Beijing Advanced Innovation Center For Food Nutrition And Human Health, Beijing Technology & Busine

Submitted to: Journal of Cereal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/5/2019
Publication Date: 3/8/2019
Citation: Li, J., Yadav, M.P., Zhu, Y., Li, J. 2019. Effect of different hydrocolloids with gluten proteins, starch and dough microstructure. Journal of Cereal Science. 87:85-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2019.03.004.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2019.03.004

Interpretive Summary: Dough preparation is the first and critical step for preparing and cooking most wheat flour products. Dough performance plays a key role in the quality of the final food products. Several food additives with different types of chemical structures are commonly used in many dough products, which prompted us to study the interaction between the hydrocolloids (additives) used and dough. We found that the less branched carbohydrate-based hydrocolloids such as kappa carrageenan, high methoxyl orange pectin, guar gum and konjac glucomannan) induced structural changes in the gluten proteins (ingredient of starch) and caused them to bind to each other. These hydrocolloids are minimally branched, make thick solution and absorb much of water. They also retard retrogradation (expelling some water from starch network) and delay starch staling (drying-out). The branched hydrocolloid, such as arabic gum makes thin solution, absorbs less water and do not associate well with gluten protein and are not too effective to improve starch properties. Thus the less branched hydrocolloids, which make a viscous solution and absorb much water can be used in many processed food products to improve their stability and texture. The action of hydrocolloids on gluten proteins was due to their interaction and incompatibility between them. Additives such as hydrocolloids can be used for diverse purposes in baking industries, such as slowing the staling (drying-out) rate, improving texture properties, moisture retention and product acceptability. Usually hydrocolloids are non-caloric, so they may be used as a low calorie replacement for high caloric carbohydrate additives, which are used as thickeners, flavor carriers and suspension stabilizers in a wide variety of food products. These findings will benefit U. S. food hydrocolloids producers by adding value and creating additional market for their products.

Technical Abstract: The interaction of hydrocolloids with the major components of dough is a critical point to explore for studying their mechanism of action, which can vary due to their diverse structures. In this study, the possible interaction of six hydrocolloids ('-carrageenan, high methoxyl orange pectin, guar gum, konjac glucomannan, arabic gum and whey protein hydrolysate) with gluten proteins and starch has been investigated. It has been found that the linear anionic ('-carrageenan and high methoxyl orange pectin) and nonionic (guar gum and konjac glucomannan) polysaccharide-based hydrocolloids induce conformational changes in the gluten proteins and form complexes with them through electrostatic interactions (anionic hydrocolloids) and hydrogen bonding. The addition of hydrocolloids has strong influence on the microstructures of dough due to their interaction and incompatibility with each other. Except for arabic gum (highly branched and low viscosity) and whey protein hydrolysate (protein hydrocolloid), all other polysaccharide-based hydrocolloids (linear and high viscosity), particularly guar gum and konjac glucomannan have strong hydrogen bonding capacity and therefore show remarkable effect on starch retrogradation, thus delaying starch staling.