|MA, D - Henan Agricultural University|
|FUERST, E - Washington State University|
|CASPER, J - Cargill, Incorporated|
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/26/2018
Publication Date: 11/2/2018
Citation: Kiszonas, A., Ma, D., Fuerst, E.P., Casper, J., Engle, D.A., Morris, C.F. 2018. Color characteristics of white salted, alkaline, and egg noodles prepared from Triticum aestivum L. and a soft kernel durum T. turgidum ssp. durum flour. Cereal Chemistry. 95:747-759. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10090.
Interpretive Summary: Wheat noodles begin as low moisture doughs that are then sheeted, cut into strands, and processed in a number of different ways. Delineation is made between ‘noodles’ –processed by sheeting, and ‘pasta’ –processed by extrusion. Although pasta is first and foremost made from durum wheat, in some parts of the world pasta is made from ‘bread wheat’ or blends of durum and bread wheat. Conversely, durum wheat may be used alone or in blends to make noodles of various shapes and styles. A simple classification of noodles involves their formulation: ‘white salted’ (also referred to as ‘udon’ in Japan), ‘alkaline’, and ‘egg’ noodles. White salted noodles contain principally flour, water and NaCl; alkaline noodles, various combinations of sodium and potassium carbonate salts (occasionally sodium hydroxide); and egg noodles, chicken eggs added as liquid or dried. There is a tremendous range of color of wheat noodles. Most of the variation in color can be attributed to formula (e.g., presence/absence of alkaline salts or eggs) and wheat variety. Consequently, the development of soft kernel durum wheats may have the potential (due to their soft kernel, low levels of PPO, and high levels of yellow pigment) to produce novel noodle products with outstanding color and color stability. The present report evaluates the noodle color performance of Soft Svevo compared to a range of soft white, a hard red spring, and a hard red winter wheat varieties, all milled on a pilot-scale Miag Multomat flour mill into ‘straight-grade’ flours.
Technical Abstract: Background and objectives: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) may have advantages over bread wheat in making various styles of noodles due to low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and high yellow pigment. However, the very hard kernel texture of durum wheat may pose a hindrance to its expanded utilization. The development of soft kernel durum wheat prompted this research into comparing the color of white salted, alkaline and egg noodle sheets over time and three levels of hydration for 1 durum and 10 hexaploid wheat varieties. Findings: All noodles darkened over time and ‘varieties’ was a major source of variation. PPO activity was a poor predictor of noodle brightness (L*) at 48 h for all three styles of noodle. The soft durum variety ‘Soft Svevo’ exhibited about average brightness but tended to have low discoloration ('L*) over time. The range in the green-red axis, b*, was small and all noodles exhibited a small positive increase with most values near the neutral gray value. All noodles were yellow, with Soft Svevo being markedly more yellow in all three formulations. The alkaline pH increased average yellowness by 3 units overall, but in Soft Svevo, not at all. In some varieties, a decrease in yellow color occurred from 6 to 48 h. Conclusions: The low PPO activity of Soft Svevo did not predict an advantage in white salted, alkaline and egg noodle sheet brightness over the ‘best’ hexaploid wheat varieties. The reason was not resolved but may be related to marked differences in protein content of the flours. Significance and novelty: Soft kernel durum wheat exhibited some advantages over hexaploid wheat, particularly in low discoloration ('L*) and high yellow color. In no way was soft durum found to be inferior to hexaploid wheat.