Submitted to: International Journal of Materials Science and Applications
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/6/2017
Publication Date: 10/16/2017
Citation: Chang, S., Condon, B.D., Smith, J.N., Easson, M.W. 2017. Preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric using environmental friendly supercritical carbon dioxide. International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. 6(6):269-276. 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20170606.11.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijmsa.20170606.11 Interpretive Summary: This research has been shown intumescent flame retardant for environmentally friendly halogen-free flame retardant which can be used to bring flame retardancy to cotton fabrics. It is particularly useful to design and develop new environmentally friendly phosphorous and nitrogen containing flame retardant and scupercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing that enable textiles. We achieved this ultimate result and in the process explained our design criteria, the chemistry to achieve the new compound, and employed standard test methods to verify our results. The new compound and their innovative technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing will be of interest and use to professionals engaged in new materials designing in textile industries to create new marketable uses for cotton fibers and fabrics to serve emerging needs.
Technical Abstract: Due to its environmentally benign character, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric was obtained by utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide with co-solvent. A novel phosphorus-nitrogen containing piperazine derivatives, tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (pdp) and sulfur-nitrogen containing tetramethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonothioate (pdpt) were synthesized and its chemical structure were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR) and elemental analysis. And then pdp and pdpt were treated with cotton fabric processed in scCO2. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vertical flame test (ASTM D6413-08), and limiting oxygen index (LOI, ASTM D2863-09) were performed on the treated cotton fabrics and showed promising results. When the treated fabric were tested using the vertical flame, we observed that the ignited fabrics self extinguished and left behind a streak of char. Treated higher add-ons fabrics were neither consumed by flame, nor produced glowing ambers upon self extinguishing. The results from cotton fabrics treated with new phosphorus-nitrogen containing piperazine derivatives demonstrated a higher LOI value as well as higher char yields due to the effectiveness of phosphorus and nitrogen as a flame retardant for cotton fabrics. Furthermore, SEM was employed to characterize the chemical structure on the treated fabrics as well as the surface morphology of char areas of treated and untreated fabrics.