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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #339200

Research Project: Industrial Monomers and Polymers from Plant Oils

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: Appraisal of biodiesel prepared via acid catalysis from palm fatty acid distillate

item LOKMAN, IBRAHIM - Universiti Putra Malaysia
item RASHID, UMER - Universiti Putra Malaysia
item Moser, Bryan
item TAUFIQ-YAP, YUN - Universiti Putra Malaysia

Submitted to: Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/3/2018
Publication Date: 10/26/2018
Citation: Lokman, I.M., Rashid, U., Moser, B.R., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. 2018. Appraisal of biodiesel prepared via acid catalysis from palm fatty acid distillate. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science.

Interpretive Summary: This research reveals that palm fatty acid distillate is acceptable as an alternative non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. Palm fatty acid distillate is an underutilized byproduct of palm oil refining. As a result of the current debates about food versus fuel issues, alternative non-food feedstocks for biodiesel production are an important area of current research. The objective of this study was to produce biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate and evaluate its fuel properties taking into consideration important biodiesel fuel standards. Palm fatty acid distillate has excellent oxidative stability and flash point as well as acceptable viscosity, density and acid value when compared to the American biodiesel standard (ASTM D6751). These results will be important to biodiesel producers, distributors, and end-users (customers) because a biodiesel fuel was described that exhibits favorable fuel properties. This research may ultimately improve market penetration, availability, and public perception of domestically produced agricultural fuels such as biodiesel, thus affording greater national independence from imported petroleum-based fuels.

Technical Abstract: Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were successfully produced from non-edible palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), which is a byproduct of crude palm oil refining. Because of its high content of free fatty acids (86.3%), PFAD was subjected to simultaneous esterification and transesterification utilizing a sulfonated glucose-derived solid acid catalyst at 65 °C for 3 h in the presence of methanol to afford FAMEs in high yield (92.3%). Fuel properties of the PFAD biodiesel were compared to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Acid (0.45 mg KOH g-1) and iodine (49 g I2 100 g-1) values as well as kinematic viscosity (4.85 mm2 s-1), density (870 kg m-3), dissolved water (30 ppm), flash point 178 °C), and sulfur content (0.1 ppm) were within the limits prescribed in the standards. PFAD biodiesel would require antioxidant additives to meet the oxidative stability specification listed in EN 14214. Overall, these results indicated that PFAD methyl esters are acceptable as biodiesel fuel.