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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #331234

Research Project: Replacement of Petroleum Products Utilizing Off-Season Rotational Crops

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of Jojoba liquid wax in lubricant applications

item Harry O Kuru, Rogers
item Biresaw, Girma
item Gordon, Sherald
item Xu, Jingyuan - James

Submitted to: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/29/2017
Publication Date: 2/1/2018
Citation: Harry-O'kuru, R.E., Biresaw, G., Gordon, S.H., Xu, J. 2018. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of Jojoba liquid wax in lubricant applications. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry.

Interpretive Summary: The goals of this work were to create substances that would be used as lubricant additive agents which would improve base oil properties, and these materials would also be friendly to the environment in use and after use. Jojoba oil is a natural seed oil used in many personal care cosmetic products. It has some drawbacks, one of which is in low temperature use. In this work, we have solved the low temperature challenges by boosting the pour point of its modified derivatives from +9 °C in the unmodified oil to -54 °C in the new derivatives, and the derivatives are still biodegradable.

Technical Abstract: Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly C38:2-C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant which occurs naturally in the Sonora Desert in the United States and northwestern Mexico as well as the northeastern Sahara Desert. The seed contains 50-60% oil by dry weight. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, and Israel for commercial production of the jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant, we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable industrial lubricant additive. Thus, we have chemically modified the carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its already good resistance to air oxidation so as to enhance its utility as well as its shelf life in nonpersonal care applications. To achieve this goal, we have hydroxylated its -C=C- bonds. Acylation of the resulting hydroxyl moieties has generated short-chain vicinal acyl substituents on the oil which keep the wax liquid, improving its cold flow properties and also protecting it from auto-oxidation and rancidity.