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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #330817

Research Project: Replacement of Petroleum Products Utilizing Off-Season Rotational Crops

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

item Evangelista, Roque
item Isbell, Terry
item Gesch, Russell - Russ
item Cermak, Steven - Steve

Submitted to: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/21/2016
Publication Date: 9/24/2016
Citation: Evangelista, R.L., Isbell, T., Gesch, R.W., Cermak, S.C. 2016. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production [abstract]. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference. 81.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high quality oil feedstock for biofuel and simultaneously improve the rural economy. Aside from their agronomic differences, the Brassica species selected produce seeds with varying oil content and fatty acid composition. Brassica napus (Invigor L130) and B. juncea (Oasis) seeds contain around 46% oil with oleic acid (C18:1) as their main fatty acid. Brassica carinata (AAC A110) and B. napus (Gem) seeds also have 46% oil with 40 and 46% erucic acid (C22:1), respectively. Brassica juncea (Pacific Gold) seeds have 40% oil with the same amounts (~20%) of oleic, linoleic (C18:2), and erucic acids. Camelina sativa (Joelle) oil contains 57% polyunsaturated fatty acids of which 63% is linolenic acid (C18:3). Thlaspi arvense oil also contains 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) of which 78% are = 20 carbons. Sinapis alba (Tilney) seeds have the lowest oil content (27%) but also the highest MUFA (69%) of which 84% are oleic and erucic acids. This work evaluated the quality of the extracted and refined oils. The oil refining process included acid-degumming, fatty acid neutralization with NaOH, and bleaching with activated clay. The phospholipids in the crude oils were effectively reduced by acid-degumming and further lowered below detection level (phosphorus < 5 ppm) after bleaching. The crude oil of T. arvense had the highest sulfur content (144 ppm) followed by Pacific Gold (54 ppm) and the rest were = 20 ppm. The reduction in sulfur content varied with each cultivar. Thlaspi arvense (56 ppm), B. juncea (Pacific Gold) (11 ppm), and B. carinata (10 ppm) had the highest remaining sulfur after bleaching. The extent of oil refining needed for feedstock oils will depend on the type of fuel to be produced and the conversion technology involved.