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Title: Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

item RISATTI, GUILLERMO - University Of Connecticut
item Borca, Manuel

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/5/2015
Publication Date: 6/4/2016
Citation: Risatti, G.R., Borca, M.V. 2016. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever) . Book Chapter. Borca, M.V. The Merck Veterinary Manual. The Merck Publishing Group 2016.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition in Europe termed “swine fever” was recognized to be the same disease. Both names continue in use, although in most of the world the disease is now called classical swine fever (CSF) to distinguish it from African swine fever (ASF), which is clinically an indistinguishable disease but caused by an unrelated DNA virus. Due to the severe economic impact caused by this disease, outbreaks of CSF are notifiable to the OIE (Animal World Health Organization). CSF has the potential to cause devastating epidemics, particularly in countries that are free of the disease. In these countries, vaccination is generally only allowed under emergency circumstances. In case of a new outbreak, strict measures are enforced to control the spread of the disease, e.g. culling of infected and disease suspect herds and strict movement restrictions. This can have severe consequences for the swine industry, especially in densely populated livestock areas. For example, during the epidemic in the Netherlands in 1997–98 a total of 429 herds were reported infected and as a consequence ~ 700,000 pigs were culled. Further control and welfare measures made it necessary to slaughter almost 12 million pigs. Awareness and vigilance are essential so that outbreaks are detected early and control measures are instituted rapidly to prevent further spread of CSF. The “high risk period”, i.e., the time between introduction of the virus and detection of the outbreak, must be kept as short as possible.