|Qin, Jianwei - Tony|
|Chao, Kuanglin - Kevin Chao|
|Cho, Byoung-kwan - Chungnam National University|
|Delwiche, Stephen - Steve|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Engineering
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/21/2016
Publication Date: 1/1/2017
Citation: Qin, J., Kim, M.S., Chao, K., Schmidt, W.F., Cho, B., Delwiche, S.R. 2017. Line-scan Raman imaging and spectroscopy platform for surface and subsurface evaluation of food safety and quality. Journal of Food Engineering. 198:17-27.
Interpretive Summary: Surface and subsurface inspection of food and agricultural products, such as detecting fruit surface contamination and evaluating flesh quality under skin, is important for food safety and quality research since interesting attributes can be at different sample locations. This study presents a multipurpose line-scan Raman platform for food safety and quality research. The platform can be configured for either line-laser Raman chemical imaging (RCI) mode for food surface evaluation or point-laser spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) mode for food subsurface evaluation. The line-scan Raman imaging and spectroscopy platform developed in this study provides a new tool for surface and subsurface inspection for food safety and quality. The method and the system will be useful to food processors and inspectors in ensuring the safety and quality of the food products and also to regulatory agencies, such as FDA and USDA FSIS, with an interest in enforcing standards of food safety and quality.
Technical Abstract: Both surface and subsurface food inspection is important since interesting safety and quality attributes can be at different sample locations. This paper presents a multipurpose line-scan Raman platform for food safety and quality research, which can be configured for Raman chemical imaging (RCI) mode for surface inspection and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) mode for subsurface inspection. In the RCI mode, macro-scale imaging was achieved using a 785 nm line laser up to 24 cm long with a push-broom method. In the SORS mode, a 785 nm point laser was used and a complete set of SORS data was collected in an offset range of 0–36 mm with a spatial interval of 0.07 mm using one CCD exposure. The RCI and SORS modes share a common detection module including a dispersive imaging spectrograph and a CCD camera, covering a Raman shift range from -674 to 2865 cm-1. A pork shoulder and an orange carrot were used to test large-field-of-view (230 mm wide) and high-spatial-resolution (0.07 mm/pixel) settings of the RCI mode for food surface evaluation. Fluorescence-corrected images at selected Raman peak wavenumbers were used to view Raman-active analytes on the whole sample surfaces (e.g., fat on the pork shoulder and carotenoids over the carrot cross section). Also, three layered samples, which were created by placing carrot slices with thicknesses of 2, 5, and 8 mm on top of melamine powder, were used to test the SORS mode for subsurface food evaluation. Raman spectra from carrot and melamine were successfully resolved for all three layered samples using self-modeling mixture analysis. The line-scan Raman imaging and spectroscopy platform provides a new tool for surface and subsurface inspection for food safety and quality.