|RHYAN, JACK - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|MCCOLLUM, MATTHEW - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|GIDLEWSKI, THOMAS - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|SHALEV, MOSHE - Us Deparment Of Homeland Security|
|WARD, GORDON - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|DONAHUE, BRENDA - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|STENFELDT, CAROLINA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
|MOHAMED, FAWZI - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|NOL, PAULINE - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|DENG, MING - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|METWALLY, SAMIA - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|MCKENNA, THOMAS - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|SALMAN, MO - Colorado State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/28/2016
Publication Date: 10/1/2016
Citation: Rhyan, J., Mccollum, M., Gidlewski, T., Shalev, M., Ward, G., Donahue, B., Arzt, J., Stenfeldt, C., Mohamed, F., Nol, P., Deng, M., Metwally, S., Mckenna, T., Salman, M. 2016. Foot-and-Mouth Disease in a small sample of experimentally infected pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 52(4):862-873.
Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease of livestock which is the most important constraint to global trade in animals and animal products. One of the complicating factors in controlling and preventing FMD outbreaks is the fact that the FMD virus (FMDV) which causes the disease may infect numerous wildlife species including deer, buffalo, and wild pigs. Although many wildlife species have been shown to be susceptible to FMDV infection, the disease has never been evaluated in pronghorn antelope which are abundant in the Western USA. The current study demonstrated that pronghorn are susceptible to FMD and suffer similar symptoms as have been described in many other species. The study also proved that many diagnostic tools that have been developed for use in domestic livestock are similarly effective for use in pronghorn. This information is important for preparedness for potential FMD outbreak in the USA.
Technical Abstract: There is limited information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North American wildlife, and none concerning pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). In this experimental study, we compared the susceptibility of pronghorn to FMD virus (FMDV) strain O, with that of cattle. We also determined the potential for intra- and interspecies transmission of FMDV strain O in pronghorn and cattle, assessed the application of conventional laboratory tests in their suitability to detect FMDV infection in pronghorn, and evaluated the potential role of pronghorn as efficient long-term carriers of FMDV. After acclimation to containment at Plum Island Animal Disease Center, two pronghorn and one steer were each infected by intraepithelial tongue inoculation with 10,000 bovine tongue infective doses of FMDV, strain O1 Manisa. Inoculated animals were housed with contact animals. When contact-exposed animals developed fever they were placed in rooms with previously unexposed animals. All inoculated and exposed cattle and pronghorn developed clinical disease typical of FMD. Pronghorn developed severe foot lesions and mild to moderate oral lesions, primarily on the tongue. Other lesions included pancreatitis, myositis of the tongue, and secondary lesions including pleuritis, pneumonia, decubital ulcers, and tenosynovitis. Virus transmission occurred between pronghorn, from cattle to pronghorn, and from pronghorn to cattle. Conventional laboratory tests detected virus and antibodies against nonstructural and structural FMDV proteins in pronghorn and cattle. Virus was present in some animals for a week but was not detectable by virus isolation or PCR at 3 weeks post-infection or afterward.