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Title: Evaluations of dual attractant toxic sugar baits for surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Florida

item SCOTT, JODI - University Of Florida
item FULCHER, ALICE - Anastasia Mosquito Control District
item SEEGER, KELLY - University Of Florida
item Allan, Sandra - Sandy
item Kline, Daniel - Dan
item KOEHLER, PHILIP - University Of Florida
item MULLER, GUNTER - Hebrew University
item XUE, RUE-DE - Anastasia Mosquito Control District

Submitted to: Parasites & Vectors
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/4/2016
Publication Date: 1/5/2017
Citation: Scott, J.M., Fulcher, A.P., Seeger, K.E., Allan, S.A., Kline, D.L., Koehler, P.G., Muller, G.C., Xue, R. 2017. Evaluations of dual attractant toxic sugar baits for surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Florida. Parasites & Vectors. 10(1):1-9. doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1937-z.

Interpretive Summary: The two peridomestic mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, pose considerable threat to urban life through persistent biting and the potential for serving as a vector of dengue or chikungunya virus. Control of these species is particularly challenging due to the difficulty in locating and treating all of the sites containing larvae. The use of attractive sugar baits in conjunction with a toxicant can provide an effective targeted approach to control, particularly in urban environments. Scientists from the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida, in collaboration with national and international University colleagues examined the addition of attractive odors produced by hosts for enhancing attraction and efficacy of toxic sugar baits. While host odors were effective, they did not enhance attraction or efficacy of the current fruit-based toxic baits which have been effective in reducing local mosquito populations. The use of attractive toxic sugar baits remain a promising tool that can contribute to an integrated management strategy for mosquito control.

Technical Abstract: Dual attractant toxic sugar baits (D-ATSB) containing two host kairomones, L-lactic (LA) and 1-octen-3-ol (O), and fruit-based attractants were evaluated through four experiments to determine if host kairomones could a. enhance attraction of a fruit-based toxic sugar bait (ATSB), and b. increase the efficacy of an ATSB. Four combinations of LA and O were incorporated into the ATSB and evaluated in an olfactometer to determine if these combinations could enhance attraction of Aedes aegypti. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were more attracted to 1% LA & 1% O compared to the fruit-based toxic sugar bait alone. Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were used to determine consumption of the most attractive D-ATSB from the previous study through excrement counts. Both species of mosquito consumed more fruit-based bait (ASB) and ATSB than the D-ATSB, which contradicted the olfaction data. Percent mortality bioassays were conducted on nine combinations of D-ATSBs to determine which concentration of the kairomones would affect the efficacy of the D-ATSB. None of the D-ATSB combinations out-performed the ATSB in controlling either species at 48 h. Semi-field evaluations were conducted to determine if the D-ATSB (1% LA & 1% O) applied to non-flowering plants controlled more mosquitoes than the ATSB. BioGents sentinel traps at 48 h confirmed that ATSB (positive control) controlled Ae. albopictus, but there was no statistical difference between ASB (negative control) and the D-ATSB or between any of the baits during semi-field evaluations for Ae. aegypti. It is our conclusion that 1% LA & 1% O added to a fruit-based sugar bait increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and may have future implications in mosquito trapping devices. The addition of the host kairomones did not enhance the efficacy of the ATSB in laboratory mortality bioassays or semi-field evaluations for both mosquito species, which we attribute to the absence of other host cues leading to lack of alighting onto bait surfaces to imbibe the toxic bait.