|BOLTON, STEPHANIE - University Of Georgia|
|BRANNEN, PHILLIPS - University Of Georgia|
|Glenn, Anthony - Tony|
Submitted to: American Society of Enology and Viticulture Annual Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/16/2015
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also produce the mycotoxin fumonisin B2. Although wine surveys in most regions of the world have determined that ochratoxin levels are below the limit expected to pose a serious health threat, it remains imperative to monitor toxin levels in poor vintages and in new production regions to ensure safety. Furthermore, mycotoxigenic fungi are associated with off-flavor volatile compounds, such as geosmin, in finished wine. Currently every state in the U.S. has a commercial winery; however, a wide-scale sampling of mycotoxins in domestic wines has not been conducted. The humid environment of the southeastern U.S. proves challenging to vinifera grapes due to opportunistic fungal growth and high disease pressure. To determine the mycotoxin potential in America’s high-risk southeastern vineyards, cluster samples representing ten grape varieties were collected from nine vineyards during the 2013 harvest and analyzed for mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. In addition to a few Aspergillus isolates, a large number of Fusarium spp. with the ability to produce fumonisins at levels comparable to Fusarium verticillioides, a well-known fumonisin producer, were readily collected. Fumonisins B1 and B2 have been reported in wine in other regions of the world. Therefore, with a toxigenic mycoflora present in the vineyards, it is imperative to analyze southeastern American vinifera wines not only for ochratoxin A but for fumonisins as well. To this end, over 200 bottles of 100% southeastern U.S., red, vinifera wines were collected during 2013-2015 and are being analyzed for mycotoxins using LC-MS/MS. These wines represent 19 red vinifera grape varieties grown across six states during vintages 2001-2013.