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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Bio-oils Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #319469

Research Project: Replacement of Petroleum Products Utilizing Off-Season Rotational Crops

Location: Bio-oils Research

Title: Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

item Evangelista, Roque
item Hojilla-Evangelista, Milagros - Mila
item Cermak, Steven - Steve
item Isbell, Terry

Submitted to: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/27/2015
Publication Date: 10/18/2015
Citation: Evangelista, R.L., Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P., Cermak, S.C., Isbell, T.A. 2015. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal [abstract]. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Annual Meeting. p. 79.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petroselenic acid (cis 6-octadecenoic acid), which has the potential to be converted into lauric and adipic acids. Lauric acid is a raw material in the manufacture of emulsifiers, detergents, soaps, and other personal care products. Adipic acid, on the other hand, is used in the production of engineering plastics. Some coriander varieties with short growing seasons (less than 90 days from planting to harvest) may be suitable for a double crop rotation with winter wheat grown in the Midwestern U.S. Integrating coriander as a second crop will provide oil for industrial use without displacing a crop for food production. Coriander essential oil, the most valuable product from coriander seeds, is commonly produced by steam distillation. There are a few reports on the triglyceride extraction and none on the processing of defatted coriander seed meals. This study evaluated the dehulling of the steam-distilled ground coriander fruit before triglyceride extraction. The coriander fruits were split using a roller mill before steam distillation. After drying, the steamed ground fruits were passed through an impact mill and the free hulls were separated by screening and aspirating. The triglyceride was extracted from the dehulled seeds by prepressing followed by hexane extraction. About 93% (6.8 g/kg) of the essential oil was recovered after 1.5 h of steam distillation. The dehulling process removed >86% of the hull. Dehulled seed with purity >95% was attainable. Dehulling the coriander fruit reduced its weight by 50% and doubled the oil content. The dehulled seeds have 70% higher crude protein than the whole fruit. Defatting the meal (0.5% oil content) increased the crude protein content to 35%.