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Research Project: Health-Promoting Bioactives and Biobased Pesticides from Medicinal and Herbal Crops

Location: Natural Products Utilization Research

Title: Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil

Author
item Zheljazkov, Valtcho - University Of Wyoming
item Gawde, Archana - State Of Wyoming
item Cantrell, Charles
item Astatkie, Tessema - Dalhousie University
item Schlegel, Vicki - University Of Nebraska

Submitted to: PLoS One
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/15/2015
Publication Date: 12/7/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/62253
Citation: Zheljazkov, V.D., Gawde, A., Cantrell, C.L., Astatkie, T., Schlegel, V. 2015. Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144120.

Interpretive Summary: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to family Apiaceae. The plant originates from the Mediterranean region; however, it is presently grown in many regions across the world as a spice and essential oil crop. Due to its unique, pleasant warm and spicy aroma, cumin has been used as spice since ancient times; ancient Greek and Roman cultures utilized it as frequently as pepper and salt are used today. Cumin seed is an essential and main ingredient in many spice mixes or cooking powders, including curry powder, chilli powder, sambar powder, and others. Currently, cumin seed is produced in India, Pakistan, and in most Mediterranean, Eastern European, and in Latin American countries. Cumin seed contains both essential and fatty oil. A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. Nonlinear regression models developed in this study can be utilized to predict essential oil yield and composition of cumin seed at any given duration of DT and may also be useful to compare previous reports on cumin oil yield and composition.

Technical Abstract: A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents a-pinene (0.14-0.5 % concentration range), B-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), y-cymene (5-7.3% range), y-terpinene (1.8-7.2 range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), a-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and B-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of a-pinene, B-pinene, y-cymene, y-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; a-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, B-pinene and y-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; y-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, a-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas B-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant capacity of the oil was highest in the oil obtained at 30 min DT and lowest in the oil from 360 min DT. The Michaelis-Menton and the Power nonlinear regression models developed in this study can be utilized to predict essential oil yield and composition of cumin seed at any given duration of DT and may also be useful to compare previous reports on cumin oil yield and composition. DT can be utilized to obtain cumin seed oil with improved antimalarial activity, improved antioxidant capacity, and with various compositions.