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Title: Co-occurence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize: guatemala as a case study

item Voss, Kenneth
item TORRES, OLGA - National Institute Of Public Health (INSP)
item MATUTE, JORGE - National Institute Of Public Health (INSP)
item GELINEAU-VAN WAES, JANEE B. - Creighton University
item MADDOX, JOYCE R - Creighton University
item GREGORY, SIMON G. - Duke University
item ASHLEY-KICH, ALLISON E - Duke University
item Showker, Adele
item Riley, Ronald

Submitted to: Gordon Research Conferences
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/14/2015
Publication Date: 6/14/2015
Citation: Voss, K.A., Torres, O., Matute, J., Gelineau-Van Waes, J., Maddox, J., Gregory, S., Ashley-Kich, A., Showker, A.J., Riley, R.T. 2015. Co-occurence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize: guatemala as a case study. Gordon Research Conferences. June 14-19,2015. Easton, Massachusetts.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are found in maize. AFB1 is a genotoxic carcinogen (IARC Group 1) and FB1 a liver cancer promoter in rodents and trout (IARC Group 2B). Therefore, the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, most notably in areas where maize serves as a dietary staple, such as Central America. The twenty-two departments of Guatemala were surveyed in 2012 to determine the extent of AFB1 – FB1 co-contamination of shelled maize bought at local markets. A total of 640 samples were ground and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ninety-nine percent of the samples were contaminated with FB1 at concentrations of individual samples ranging up to 17.1 ppm. The average FB1 concentration was 1.8 + 0.9 ppm (SEM). The mean FB1 level varied among the departments, ranging from 0.4 + 0.4 to 3.2 + 0.5 ppm. FB2 and FB3 were also found and contributed to the mean concentration of 2.6 + 0.1 ppm total fumonisins (FB1+2+3) in the samples. AFB1 was found in 36% of the clean (no visible mold) maize samples (206/572) at an average concentration of 63 + 10 ppb. None was detected in samples from one department (Quetzaltenango) and mean levels in the remaining 21 departments ranged from 0.4 + 0.4 ppb to 243 + 74 ppb. Levels in individual samples varied, ranging from “not detected” to as high as 2,656 ppb. Unlike FB1, for which its concentrations were similar in clean and moldy maize, AFB1 concentrations were much higher (average = 1,136 + 239 ppb) in the 68 moldy samples. Aflatoxin G2 was detected in 5 samples. The findings indicate that co-exposure is possible in areas where foods prepared from AFB1 - FB1 co-contaminated maize are consumed.