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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Support the Global Control and Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus(FMDV)

Location: Foreign Animal Disease Research

Title: Systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic-compatible responses upon aerosol infection

Author
item PEGA, J. - Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria
item DI GIACOMO, S. - Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria
item BUCAFUSCO, D. - Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria
item SCHAMMAS, J. - Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria
item BARRIONUEVO, F. - Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria
item CAPOZZO, A. - Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria
item Rodriguez, Luis
item Borca, Manuel
item PEREZ-FILGUEIRA, MARIANO - Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria

Submitted to: Journal of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/1/2015
Publication Date: 7/8/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61576
Citation: Pega, J., Di Giacomo, S., Bucafusco, D., Schammas, J.M., Barrionuevo, F., Capozzo, A., Rodriguez, L.L., Borca, M.V., Perez-Filgueira, M. 2015. Systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic-compatible responses upon aerosol infection. Journal of Virology. 89(18):9581-9590. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01082-15.

Interpretive Summary: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hooved animals that affects the livelihoods of millions of people around the globe. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated whole FMD virus (FMDV) particles, are regularly used worldwide. Here, we studied the generation of local antibody responses in the respiratory system in vaccinated cattle. Interestingly, we were able to show the development of FMDV-specific antibody response in the respiratory tract of animals that were intramuscularly vaccinated. Importantly, when these animals were challenged by oronasal route (which resembles a more natural route of infection) there was a strong secondary response. In addition, all animals were completely protected. This is the first report describing the induction of a local anti-FMDV response in vaccinated animals and opens the need to assess the role of the local response in the protection against FMD.

Technical Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated whole FMD virus (FMDV) particles, are regularly used worldwide in regions recognized as free from the disease. Here, we studied the generation of antibody responses in local lymphoid tissues along the respiratory system in vaccinated and further aerosol-infected cattle. High payload monovalent FMD vaccines developed rapid neutralizing antibody responses at 7 days post-vaccination (dpv), reaching a plateau until 29 dpv. FMDV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC), predominantly IgM, were evident in the prescapular lymph node (LN) draining the vaccination site at 7 dpv, but also in distal LN draining the respiratory system, although in much lower magnitude. Twenty-nine dpv a significant switch to IgG1 was clear in the prescapular LN and, interestingly, FMDV-specific ASC were detected in all the lymphoid tissues draining the respiratory tract, mostly as IgM secreting cells. None of the animals (n=12) showed FMD symptoms after oronasal infection at 30 dpv. Infection, however, induced a large increase in ASC numbers and rapid isotype switches to IgG1 particularly in LN draining the replication sites of the virus. These results indicate for the first time that systemic FMD vaccination in cattle effectively promotes the presence of anti-FMDV ASC in lymphoid tissues located at the respiratory system. Oronasal infection triggered an immune reaction compatible with a local anamnestic response upon contact with the replicating FMDV, suggesting that FMD vaccination might induce the circulation of antigen-specific B-lymphocytes, some of which are memory B-cells that differentiate to ASC soon after contact with the infective virus.