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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #310830

Research Project: Control of Toxic Endophytic Fungi with Bacterial Endophytes and Regulation of Bacterial Metabolites for Novel Uses in Food Safety

Location: Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research

Title: New Hosts for Balansia epichloe in tall fescue pastures

item Bacon, Charles
item Hinton, Dorothy
item Palencia, Edwin - Former ARS Employee

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/2/2014
Publication Date: 5/2/2014
Citation: Bacon, C.W., Hinton, D.M., Palencia, E. 2014. New Hosts for Balansia epichloe in tall fescue pastures. 25th Annual Luttrell and Symposium in Honor of Dr. Richard Hanlin. May 2, 2014. Athens, Georgia.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Clavicipitalean fungi consist of a relatively small group of genera that are parasitic on grasses and sedges. These fungi consist of five genera including Claviceps, Epichloe, and Balansia, all of which are biotrophic and some are mutualistic, and endophytic in their association with grasses. Several species Epichloe are disseminated horizontally, while others are disseminated vertically and horizontally. Similarities are expressed by species of both genera by the production of ergot alkaloids, although there are differences with the species of Epichloe producing the more sophisticated chemical and toxic ergot alkaloid with similarity to those produced by species of Claviceps. Research has been limited in terms of species concepts, infection, and host associations by the Balansia species. This work is based on observations of natural host infections by species of Balansia over a 25-year period on the occurrence of infection on different host within a location by one species, B. epichloe (synonym B. kunzei). Tall fescue pastures infected with E. typhina (synonym Neotyphodium coenophialum) were studied for over two decades to determine the natural host ranges of other Clavicipitalean ergot alkaloid producing Balansia endophyte-infected weed grass species that might confound toxicity symptoms of cattle characterized as fescue toxicosis.