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Research Project: Metabolism and Molecular Targets of Macro and Micro Food Components in the Development and Management of Obesity and Chronic Diseases

Location: Food Components and Health Laboratory

Title: Low to moderate alcohol consumption on serum vitamin D and other indicators of bone health in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

Author
item Mahabir, Somdat - National Cancer Institute (NCI, NIH)
item Baer, David
item Pfeiffer, Ruth - National Cancer Institute (NCI, NIH)
item Young, Li - National Cancer Institute (NCI, NIH)
item Watkins, Bruce - University Of Connecticut
item Taylor, Philip - National Cancer Institute (NCI, NIH)

Submitted to: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/8/2014
Publication Date: 9/17/2014
Citation: Mahabir, S., Baer, D.J., Pfeiffer, R., Young, L., Watkins, B.A., Taylor, P.R. 2014. Low to moderate alcohol consumption on serum vitamin D and other indicators of bone health in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 68:1267-1270.

Interpretive Summary: Excessive alcohol consumption is known to adversely affect vitamin D status and bone health. However, data on the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption on vitamin D status and bone health in humans is not available. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drinking daily for eight weeks one or two drinks (defined as 15 g of alcohol or 30 g of alcohol) compared to no alcohol on vitamin D status and bone health in fifty-one post-menopausal women. The alcohol was consumed as part of a highly-controlled diet in a cross over study. Vitamin D status was determined by assessing serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D). Bone health was assessed using biochemical markers including, osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and helical peptide (HP). Fasting serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured at baseline, week 4 and week 8; serum OC, BSAP, and urine DPD and HP concentrations were measured at baseline and week 8. In addition, the genetic makeup of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of four genes used to metabolize alcohol was also determined. Compared to no alcohol, one or two daily drinks for eight weeks had no significant impact on serum 25(OH)D, OC, BSAP, or urine DPD and HP concentrations. For each dose of alcohol consumed, obese women had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D and higher DPD concentrations than normal weight women. None of the biomarker concentrations were affected by genetic polymorphisms in the genes used to metabolize alcohol. Low or moderate alcohol consumption for eight weeks had no significant impact on markers of bone health in postmenopausal women. These data are of interest to allied health professionals, scientists, and consumers interested in how diet might affect risk for osteoporosis.

Technical Abstract: Heavy alcohol drinking adversely affects vitamin D status and bone health. However, data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption on vitamin D status and bone health in humans is unavailable. The objective of this cross-over RCT was to evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of no alcohol, low (1 drink or 15g/d) and moderate (2 drinks or 30g/d) alcohol consumption on markers of bone health: serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and helical peptide (HP) in post-menopausal women (n=51). Fasting serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured at baseline, week 4 and week 8; serum OC, BSAP, and urine DPD and HP concentrations were measured at baseline and week 8. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 alcohol metabolizing genes were assayed in germline DNA. Compared to no alcohol, 1 or 2 drinks/day for 8 weeks had no significant impact on serum 25(OH)D, OC, BSAP, or urine DPD and HP concentrations. Within each alcohol group, obese women had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D and higher DPD concentrations than normal weight women. None of the biomarker concentrations differed across genotypes in alcohol metabolizing genes at any of the alcohol ingestion levels tested. Low or moderate alcohol consumption for 8 weeks had no significant impact on markers of bone health in postmenopausal women. However, obese women consistently had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D and higher urinary DPD than normal weight women within each treatment group. The significance of lower 25(OH)D and higher DPD to bone health in obese women is unclear because obesity is not a risk factor for low bone mass.